The purpose of this article is to present contemporary climatic changes in their actual scale, and to assess their impact on functioning of urban areas situated on the Polish coast. The results of the analysis of variability of hydro-climatic conditions that occurred in the last 65 years (1951-2015) in the area of the Polish coast suggest that important changes were concerning: (1) temperature of the air, and thickness and length of the occurrence of the snow cover, (2) sea surface temperature, and thickness and length of the occurrence of ice cover, (3) sea level rise during storm surges. It was found, however, that the occurrence of catastrophic fl oods from precipitation in the Tri-City area is not the result of climate change, but it is caused by local conditions. The observed increase of air temperatures, and average sea surface temperatures in the Southern Baltic has generally a positive impact on functioning of coastal cities, and does not need any complex adaptation plans to climate changes. Summer is the only period in which the increase of temperature infl uence cities negatively, due to strengthening the urban heat islands. In this case, the architectural solutions, that require large amounts of energy should be eliminated. In urban planning scale, the solutions helping to cool the space in between buildings should be implemented. Sea level rise in the years 2009-2015, caused by storm surges, should be regarded as a signifi cant change in the climate of the Southern Baltic Sea. Taking these changes into account maps of hazard and flood risk, developed in an ISOK project, should be the basis for detailed records in Study of Conditions and Directions of Spatial Development and local development plans of cities, determining the rules and restrictions of the investment and management in the areas at risk of flooding.
A number of thorough studies characterizing national and regional innovation systems have been published over the last years but what is relatively new is the theme of local innovation systems. In the era of increasing emphasis on urban issues in the development policies of countries and organizations such as the European Union and the location of innovation in the centre of regional development debate, it is justifi ed to ask how the measures are directed to the provincial cities. The article concentrates on 5 voivodeship cities as the main centers of regions with the highest number of institutions that usually build local innovation systems, three of which are located in the less developed regions in Poland.
During studying and mathematical description of the trends of urbanized territories development as ecological and town-planning systems there were several vague similarities founded between its major parameters change periodicity and other physical values, having undulatory nature. Obtained counterparts had predetermined interest for search of fundamental basics of urbanization. It turned out that all laws of Nature has the same basis – power permanence rule. This law is known in philosophy as principle of «change of unchangeable», in ecology – as a law of ecosystem self-regulation, in accordance to which at conditions of insufficient occupancy of the territory the population amount growths, and at conditions of over-occupancy it decreases. According to research, also development attributable to the dynamics of urbanized territories is noticeable, in which all the four types of physical interactions are expressed to a certain degree. These and other results of research have allowed to articulate the main principles of ecological space «urban physics» content, which have proven to be coordinated with the postulates of new single field physics (Bishkek version). The above-mentioned have allowed to lay down the theoretical foundation for an occurrence of a new branch in the science of townplanning i.e. wave urbanistics, as a science of management by unduly processes of territories development in order to provide a conditions of their sustainable development.