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Abstract

In the paper, preliminary studies on formulation of a new constitutive equation of bone tissue are presented. A bone is modelled as a viscoelastic material. Thus, not only are elastic properties of the bone taken into account, but also both short-term and long-term viscoelastic properties are considered. A potential function is assumed for the bone, constant identification on the basis of experimental stress-strain curve fitting is completed and a preliminary constitutive equation is formulated. The experiments consisted of compressive tests performed on a cuboids-like bone sample of the following dimensions: 10x5x7.52 mm. The specimen was compressed along the highest dimension at the strain rates 0.016 s to the -1 and 0.00016 s to the -1. In addition to this, stress relaxation test was performed to identify long-term viscoelastic constants of bone. In the experiments, only displacement in the load direction was measured. The bone sample was extracted from a bovine femur. The form of the proposed potential function is such that it models a bone as a transversely isotropic material. For the sake of simplicity, it is assumed that the bone is incompressible. After the material constant identification the strain energy function proved to be adequate to describe bone behaviour under compressive load. Due to the fact that the function is convex, the results of the studies can be utilised in modelling of bone tissue in finite element analyses of an implant-bone system. Such analyses are very helpful in the process of a new prosthesis design as one can preoperatively verify the construction of the new implant and optimise its shape.
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Abstract

In thermosfluid dynamics, free convection flows external to different geometries, such as cylinders, ellipses, spheres, curved walls, wavy plates, cones, etc., play major role in various industrial and process engineering systems. The thermal buoyancy force associated with natural convection flows can play a critical role in determining skin friction and heat transfer rates at the boundary. In thermal engineering, natural convection flows from cylindrical bodies has gained exceptional interest. In this article, we mathematically evaluate an entropy analysis of magnetohydrodynamic third-grade convection flows from permeable cylinder considering velocity and thermal slip effects. The resulting non-linear coupled partial differential conservation equations with associated boundary conditions are solved with an efficient unconditionally stable implicit finite difference Keller-Box technique. The impacts of momentum and heat transport coefficients, entropy generation and Bejan number are computed for several values of non-dimensional parameters arising in the flow equations. Streamlines are plotted to analyze the heat transport process in a two-dimensional domain. Furthermore, the deviations of the flow variables are compared with those computed for a Newtonian fluid and this has important implications in industrial thermal material processing operations, aviation technology, different enterprises, energy systems and thermal enhancement of industrial flow processes.
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Abstract

Analytical and numerical nonlinear solutions for rotating variable-thickness functionally graded solid and annular disks with viscoelastic orthotropic material properties are presented by using the method of successive approximations. Variable material properties such as Young’s moduli, density and thickness of the disk, are first introduced to obtain the governing equation. As a second step, the method of successive approximations is proposed to get the nonlinear solution of the problem. In the third step, the method of effective moduli is deduced to reduce the problem to the corresponding one of a homogeneous but anisotropic material. The results of viscoelastic stresses and radial displacement are obtained for annular and solid disks of different profiles and graphically illustrated. The calculated results are compared and the effects due to many parameters are discussed.
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