As of the spring of 2017, the HAŁDY Database is available on the Polish Geological Institute – NRI website. The geodatabase contains information and data on waste mineral raw materials collected on old heaps, industrial waste stock-piles and in post-mining settlers, from the Polish part of the Sudety Mountains. The article presents the types of data and information contained in the geodatabase and the methodology for their collection. As a result of four-year research works, field reconnaissance, archives and geological basic research, 445 objects of former mining and mineral processing were inventoried. There are 403 mine heaps, 16 industrial settlers, 23 stock-piles and 3 external dumps. These are mainly objects after coal mining and metal ores, including post-uranium. The greatest opportunities for the economic use of waste are associated with coal sludge accumulated in settlers of the liquidated Lower Silesian Coal Basin. The material from stone heaps after polymetallic, iron and fluorite ore mining is also easy to use. The issue of the economic use of post-flotation copper ore waste or the recovery of metals (including gold) from dumps of arsenic mining remains open. The limitation here is the efficiency of metal recovery technologies and environmental restrictions. Some of the objects are located in protected areas, which excludes the possibility of waste management. Some stock-piles and heaps should be carefully reclaimed and covered by environmental monitoring, due to their harmful impact on environmental components.
There are approx. 250 coal waste dumping grounds in Poland, yet there are countries in which this number is even higher. One of the largest sites for depositing mining and power plant waste in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin is the Przezchlebie dumping ground. In the article, it is considered as a secondary deposit of raw materials. An assessment of mining waste collected on the Przezchlebie dumping ground was carried out in terms of its impact on the environment and the possibility of its use. Mining waste samples were tested to determine their chemical composition. Physicochemical properties and chemical compositions of water extracts obtained from the investigated waste and groundwater in the vicinity of the dumping ground were analyzed. Due to the fire hazard resulting from the natural oxidation process of chiefly carbonaceous matter and pyrite, the thermal condition of the dumping ground was assessed. The results of the obtained tests confirmed the slight impact of mining waste deposited on the Przezchlebie dumping ground on the environment. The chemical composition, low radioactive activity of waste itself and the results of water extract tests referred to the permissible values according to the Polish Journal of Laws allow for multi-directional waste management. Due to the significant carbon content, the risk of self-ignition poses a significant threat on the dumping ground. Re-mining of the dumping ground and the recovery of raw materials, including coal contained in waste, will eliminate the risk of fire, allowing for a wider use of waste and, at the same time, will allow for other benefits, e.g. in the form of financial resources and the possibility of managing the dumping ground area.
The paper presents a concept of producing energy on the basis of modern alternative fuels to be burnt in low- and medium-power stokerfired boilers. The thermal energy contained in water vapour and hot water will be utilized in producing, in combination, of electrical energy, and for heating of cubature objects. Modern alternative fuels in the form of briquettes and pellets will be produced from hard coals and municipal waste other than hazardous. There have been presented the properties of alternative fuels obtained, and the concept of their utilization in the process of energy production in cogeneration.
The amount of waste from washing dolomite aggregates increases continuously. Aggregates are washed to remove clayey pollutants.They consist of a large amount of clay minerals and carbonates. Their properties and amount depends on the type of raw material and type of washing technology. Utilization of waste from washing aggregates is common problem and has not been sought out yet. Their usage as the raw material in ceramics might be environmentally friendly way to utilize them. This paper presents technological properties, phase composition and microstructure analysis of materials made of waste sludge from washing dolomite aggregates. Research was divided into three parts: technological properties analysis, phase composition analysis and microstructure analysis. Samples made of waste dolomite sludge were formed in laboratory clay brick vacuum extruder and fired at 900, 1000 and 1100°C. For final materials, apparent density, open porosity, water absorption, compressive strength and durability were examined. Results of technological research suggest the possibility of the application of the waste sludge from washing aggregates in building ceramics technology as bricks materials. Waste sludge from washing dolomite aggregates can be used as the main raw material of building ceramics masses. Without any additional technological operations (e.g. drying or grinding), the material with satisfactory properties was obtained. According to durability results all obtained materials can be used for masonry protected against water penetration and without contact with soil and ground water and also for masonry subjected to passive exposure (F0 – according to the standard EN 771-1).
There are a huge number of objects constituting a storage place of coal mining waste in the coal basins in Poland and around the world. The article is a continuation of the study on the possibilities of using raw materials deposited on the coal mining waste dumping grounds on the example of the Przezchlebie dumping ground. The possibility of coal recovery from mining waste located on the dumping ground was analyzed. Tests on the quality parameters of waste were carried out, i.e. moisture and ash content, as well as the calorific value of raw waste. The relatively high calorific value and low ash content in the waste served as the basis for further tests related to the separation of coal. Tests on the mining waste enrichment using the complex based on the K-102 Komag pulse separator were carried out. As a result of coal separation, 7.66% of concentrate was obtained (in relation to feed) with the calorific value of 26.16 MJ/kg and ash content of 19.96%. Apart from mining waste, power plant waste (fly ash) can also be found on the dumping ground. They were subjected to tests for the possibility of using them in the production of construction materials, especially concrete and cement. Fly ash from the Przezchlebie dumping ground was classified as silica ash and it was found that it meets the requirements of Polish standard, except for the fineness of 42%. The separation of coal will eliminate the fire hazard on the dumping ground. A possible scenario of managing waste material on a dumping ground, which can be implemented in similar facilities, has been presented.
This paper is focused on the manufacturing and properties of light weight aggregates made from local waste materials. The waste materials were car windshield glass contaminated by PVB foil, fly ash, mine slates as well as wastes after toothpaste production. The main aim of the research was to combine car windshield glass and the aluminosilicate coal mine slates as a basis for light weight aggregates manufacturing. Fly ash were added in order to modify rheological properties of the plastic mass. Toothpaste wastes were introduced as a source of carbonates and CO2 evolution during thermal treatment. After milling and mixing all materials they were pressed and sintered at temperature range of 950°C-1100°C in air. The results show that it is possible to receive light weight aggregates only from the Silesian local waste materials. The significant influence of sintering temperature on properties of aggregates was observed.
The object of the investigation was metal contamination of bottom sediments of the Skroda and Chwaliszówka rivers, which are the right contributaries of the Lusatian Neisse river, draining the territory of the so called “anthropogenic lake district”. The district came into existence as a result of mining activities in the border of Silesia and Lusatia, which date from the half of 19th century to 1974. The district includes about 100 reservoirs, of the total area of over 150 ha, which are from about 30 to 100 years old. The rocks accompanying the Miocene coal-bearing formations were deposited on waste dumps. The dumps form embankments of the aquifers arising as a result of post-exploitation mining subsidence. The streams dewatering waste dumps inflow directly or indirectly to the Chwaliszówka and Skroda rivers. The pyrite is the mineral present in mine waste material. The pyrite weathering products inflow into surface waters and affect adversely the water quality. In the last stage of migration the pollutants are accumulated in the bottom sediments of rivers and lakes. The samples of bottom sediments of the two rivers were analysed by means of a five-step sequential extraction procedure performed for the partitioning of selected trace metals (Fe, Mn, As, Cr and Al). It was determined that the bottom sediments of the two analysed rivers contain significant concentrations of aluminium and iron. The concentrations of other metals (Mn, Cr and As) are in the range of geochemical background of water sediments in Poland. Concentrations of arsenium, chromium and manganese, which are bound to easy-available fractions (I – exchangeable and II – bound to carbonates) are not significant, so it could be assumed that they are not expected to be released and they do not threaten the river ecological system. There is, however, the possibility of the aluminium and iron re-mobilisation, taking into account the high concentrations of easy-available fractions of these metals in the sediment. Fe and Al are potential source of water contamination, and re-mobilisation of these metals will produce the aggravation of quality parameters of river waters.