The Baltic is a unique brakish sea. Its moderate salinity is the result of the fresh river water input and non-periodic inflows of salty, oxygenated waters from the North Sea. However, the balance continually fluctuates. What impact does that have on the sea?
In the examined area three types of waters have been recorded: Surface Waters of winter modification, Warm Deep Waters and East Bransfield Strait Waters. Geographical location of Scotia Front is similar to that observed in previous years. The dynamics of waters within the examined area is high. It is reflected not only in physical and chemical parameters but also in the distribution of chlorophyll α. In the Front its total amount in a water column is greater than outside.
Based on the results of CTD measurements (in situ) made during r/v „Oceania" cruises in the Norwegian and Greenland Seas in 1986—1988 selected aspects of termohaline structure and water dynamics of chosen regions of the seas were described. Examples of space-time variations of temperature and salinity fields were presented and water masses geostrophic transport on the limits of the Norwegian Sea (upon the Atlantic Ocean and the Barents Sea) was estimated.
System Dynamics is methodology for modeling and analyzing complex systems. Such systems can be characterized by interconnectedness and feedback. Applying risk assessment to the results of System Dynamics models is a challenge. Though in some cases the resulting time series data generated by a simulation may appear approximately random at a specific scale, there is often a high-degree of auto-correlation within the data series due to the deterministic nature of generation and feedback loops inherent in the system. This paper presents proposed Dynamic Risk Assessment Method (DRAM) that allows for the estimation of risk for system dynamics data series that appear to be approximately random. DRAM is based on standard risk assessment methods and is simple both to calculate and apply. In this article, the proposed method is applied to determine the risk connected with hypothetical costs of illness stemming from water supply system contamination with Cryptosporidium.
While modeling water dynamics in dam reservoirs, it is usually assumed that the flow involves the whole water body. It is true for shallow reservoirs (up to several meters of depth) but may be false for deeper ones. The possible presence of a thermocline creates an inactive bottom layer that does not move, causing all the discharge to be carried by the upper strata. This study compares the results of hydrodynamic simulations performed for the whole reservoir to the ones carried out for the upper strata only. The validity of a non-stratified flow approximation is then discussed.