The level of sales of a given good depends largely on the distribution network. An analysis of the distribution network allows companies to optimize business activity, which improves the efficiency and profitability of a company’s sales with an immediate effect on profit growth. The so-called spatial analysis is highly useful in this regard. The paper presents an analysis of the network of authorized dealers of the Polish Mining Group for the Opolskie Province. The analysis was done using GIS (SIP) tools. The purpose of the analysis was to present tools that could be used to verify an existing distribution network, to optimize it, or to create a new sales outlet. The prresented tools belong to GIS operations used to process data stored in Spatial Information System resources. These are so-called geoprocessing tools. The article contains several spatial analyses, which results in choosing the optimum location of the distribution point in terms of the defined criteria. The used tools include a spatial intersection and sum. Geocoding and the so-called cartodiagram were also used. The presented analysis can be performed for both the network of authorized retailers within a region, a city or an entire country. The presented tools provide the opportunity to specify the target consumers, areas where they are located and areas of potential consumer concentration. This allows the points of sale in areas with a high probability of finding new customers to be located, which enables the optimal location to be chosen, for example, in terms of access to roads, rail transport, locations of the right area and neighborhood. Spatial analysis tools will also enable the coal company to verify its already existing distribution network.
Coal in Poland is an available conventional fuel providing energy security and independence of the country. Therefore, conventional energy generation should be based on coal with the optimal development of renewable energy sources. Such a solution secures the energy supply based on coal and the independence of political and economic turmoil of global markets. Polish coal reserves can secure the energy supply for decades. Coal will surely be important for energy security in the future despite the growing share of oil and gas in energy mix. The development of renewable power generation will be possible with the conventional energy generation offsetting volatile renewable power generation as Poland’s climate doesn’t allow for the stable and effective use of renewable energy sources. Considering the policy of the European Union with respect to emission reductions of greenhouse gasses and general trends as reflected in the Paris agreement in 2016, as a country we will be forced to increase renewable energy production in our energy mix. However, this process cannot impact the energy security of the country and stability and the uninterrupted supply of energy to consumers. Therefore seeking the compromise with the current energy mix in Poland is the best way to its gradual change with the simultaneous conservation of each of the sources of energy. It’s obvious that Poland can not be lonely energy island in Europe and in the world, which increasingly develops distributed energy and/ renewable technologies as well as energy storage ones. One can notice that without renewable generation and the reduction of coal’s share in country’s energy mix we will become the importer of electricity with raising energy dependence.
Coal combustion processes are the main source of mercury emission to the environment in Poland. Mercury is emitted by both power and heating plants using hard and brown coals as well as in households. With an annual mercury emission in Poland at the level of 10 Mg, the households emit 0.6 Mg. In the paper, studies on the mercury release in the coal and biomass combustion process in household boilers were conducted. The mercury release factors were determined for that purpose. For the analyzed samples the mercury release factors ranged from 98.3 to 99.1% for hard coal and from 99.5% to 99.9% for biomass, respectively. Due to the high values of the determined factors, the amount of mercury released into the environment mainly depends on the mercury content in the combusted fuel. In light of the obtained results, the mercury content in the examined hard coals was 6 times higher than in the biomass (dry basis). Taking the calorific value of fuels into account, the difference in mercury content between coal and biomass decreased, but its content in coal was still 4 times higher. The mercury content determined in that way ranged from 0.7 to 1.7 μg/MJ for hard coal and from 0.1 to 0.5 μg/MJ for biomass, respectively. The main opportunity to decrease the mercury emissions from households is offered by the use of fuels with a mercury content that is as low as possible, as well as by a reduction of fuel consumption. The latter could be obtained by the use of modern boilers as well as by the thermo-modernization of buildings. It is also possible to partially reduce mercury emissions by using dust removal devices.
The paper presents brown coal as one of the two basic domestic energy raw materials apart from hard coal. Historically, the use of brown coal in Poland is primarily fuel for the power plants. It was used for the production of lignite briquettes in small quantities and as fuel for local boiler houses and as an addition to the production of fertilizers (Konin and Sieniawa). At present, after changes in the case of the quality of fuels used in local boiler plants, brown coal remains as a fuel for the power plants in almost 100%. Currently, the brown coal industry produces about 35% of the cheapest electricity. The cost of electricity production is more than 30% lower than the second basic fuel – hard coal. The existing fuel and energy complexes using brown coal, with the Bełchatów complex at the forefront, are now an important guarantor of Poland’s energy security. In contrast to the other fuels such as: oil, natural gas or hard coal, the cost of electricity production from brown coal is predictable in the long term and almost insensitive to fluctuations in global commodity and currency markets. Its exploitation is carried out using the high technological solutions and respecting all environmental protection requirements, both in the area of coal extraction and electricity generation. Importantly, the fuel and energy complexes using brown coal showed a positive profitability so far and generated surpluses enabling the financing of maintenance and development investments, also in other energy segments. In particular, the sector did not require and has yet not benefited from public aid in the form of, for example, subsidies or tax concessions. Polish brown coal mining has all the attributes necessary for long-term development to ensure the country’s energy security. The document which is a road map for the brown coal industry is the Program for the Brown Coal Mining Sector in Poland adopted by the Council of Ministers on May 30, 2018. The Program covers the years 2018–2030 with a perspective up to 2050 and presents the development directions of the brown coal mining sector in Poland together with the objectives and actions necessary to achieve them. The Program presents a strategy for the development of brown coal mining in Poland in the first half of the 21st century. Possible scenarios have developed in active mining and energy basins as well as in new regions with significant resources of this mineral. This is to enable the most efficient use of deposits in the Złoczew and Konin regions as well as the Gubin and Legnica brown coal basins, and then deposits located in the Rawicz region (Oczkowice) as well as other prospective areas that may eventually replace the existing active mining and energy areas. This will allow power plants to continue to produce inexpensive and clean electricity, using the latest global solutions in the field of clean coal technologies.
The frictional resistance coefficient of ventilation of a roadway in a coal mine is a very important technical parameter in the design and renovation of mine ventilation. Calculations based on empirical formulae and field tests to calculate the resistance coefficient have limitations. An inversion method to calculate the mine ventilation resistance coefficient by using a few representative data of air flows and node pressures is proposed in this study. The mathematical model of the inversion method is developed based on the principle of least squares. The measured pressure and the calculated pressure deviation along with the measured flow and the calculated flow deviation are considered while defining the objective function, which also includes the node pressure, the air flow, and the ventilation resistance coefficient range constraints. The ventilation resistance coefficient inversion problem was converted to a nonlinear optimisation problem through the development of the model. A genetic algorithm (GA) was adopted to solve the ventilation resistance coefficient inversion problem. The GA was improved to enhance the global and the local search abilities of the algorithm for the ventilation resistance coefficient inversion problem.
Anthracite coal matter fills irregular voids in dolostones of the Upper Proterozoic Höferpynten Formation in the Hornsund area, south Spitsbergen. The coals are of organic origin, as indicated by a variety of coal-petrographic studies, and by association with algal structures. They probably derived from bitumina accumulated in voids of dolostone at an early diagenelic stage. The degree of coalification (graphitization) is high but diversified, suggesting several coalification stages, probably related t o successive metamorphic events. The oldest changes may correspond to initial stage of t h e greenschist-amphibolite phase of regional metamorphism, with temperatures of over 500°C and pressure of over 20,000 MPa . Multiphase graphite crystallites which occur in t h e coal are mainly fibrous. There are also crystallites which precipitated from gaseous phase, and pyrolitic graphite; they may have originated due to action of mesothermal solutions which had produced ore-bearing veins.
One of the parameters which enables the evaluation of carbonaceous material is the thermal effect of wetting. The value of the heat of wetting provides information about the surface energy and the texture of the materials immersed in the wetting liquid. Knowledge of the heat of wetting of the carbonaceous materials is used to research their sorption properties, to characterize the structure and to determine the surface area. A method of me asuring the wetting of the carbonaceous materials as one of the methods to evaluate the carbonaceous materials was proposed. On the basis of research which was conducted, one determined the heat of wetting black coal from the Brzeszcze mine by methyl alcohol and lignites from the Turów and Bełchatów mine. One of activated carbons furnished by the Gryfskand company (WD-extra) was selected for the purpose of the comparison. The enthalpy of immersion was calculated on the basis of the results, the surface of the carbonaceous materials that were studied. It was revealed that the energetic effects of wetting depend both upon the microporous structure and the chemical nature of the adsorbent. The greatest heat of wetting calculated per 1g of the carbonaceous material, which has the most developed surface area and micropore volume, was obtained for the activated carbon. However, the heat of wetting does not increase proportionally to the surface area. The study revealed that the thermal effects of wetting for fossil coal decreases with the increasing of the surface area. The linear relationship was obtained for the three samples which were studied. The highest thermal effects (ΔT) and heat of wetting (Q) among the fossil coals was determined for the lignite from the Bełchatów mine, even though this coal had the least-developed porous structure. One may discern a clear influence of the swelling process upon the measured thermal effects on the basis of this sample.
The underground mining of coal deposits in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (GZW) re-sults in an imbalance in the distribution of the stress in the rock mass, both in the immediate and distant surroundings of mining excavations. The occurrence of seismic tremors, among others, is the consequence of this process,. The intensities of seismic phenomena, which occur in several regions of the GZW (Bytomian Basin, Main Saddle, Main Basin, Kazimierzowska Basin, and the Jejkowice Basin) are very diverse, ranging from tremors unrecognizable by humans to strong tremors of the nature of weak earthquakes (Patyńska and Stec 2017). During the period of 15 years, i.e. from 2001 to 2015, the level of seismic activity changed and de-pended on both the intensity of the excavation work and the variability of the lithological and tectonic structures. On the other hand, the seismic activity analysis has shown that in recent years, despite a decrease in total output, seismic activity and rockburst hazard have increased. One of the rea-sons was the increase in mining output. Almost half of the output came from coal seams under the rockburst hazard. This resulted in an increase in the number of great energy tremors with the energy of 107, 108 and 109 J. It has been shown that the amount of energy tremors has a high impact on the level of the rockburst hazard. Between 2001 and 2015, as many as 20 rockburst were caused by seismic tremors above 107 J with 42 total phenomena (Patyńska 2002–2016). The purpose of characterizing the causes of this phenomenon was determined by the parameters characterizing the structure of the rock mass in places where the rockburst was recorded.
The presence of inorganic elements in solid fuels is not only considered a direct source of problems in the furnace but is also connected with the release of pollutants into air during combustion. This article focuses on the sintering characteristics of biomass and coal ashes, in particular on the leaching processes, and their impact on the tendency to sinter ash. Biomass and coal ash with high alkali metal concentration can deposit in boiler sections and cause severe operating problems such as slagging, fouling and corrosion of boiler and heat exchanger surface, limiting heat transfer. Two biomass types and one coal ash with different origin and different chemical compositions were investigated. A sequential leaching analysis was employed in this study to elucidate the modes of occurrence of metals that can transform into fuel extract. Sequential leaching analysis was conducted as a two-step process: using distilled water in the first step and acetic acid in the second step. The chemical composition of ashes, before and after each step of the leaching processwas studied using ICP-OES method. The standard Ash Fusion Temperature (AFTs) technique was also employed to assess the sintering tendency of the tested samples. It was observed that the presence of key elements such as sodium, potassium, magnesium and sulphur (elucidated in the leaching process) plays a significant role in sintering process. The sintering tendency enhances when the concentration of these elements increases.
The article presents an analysis of Russia’s participation in international steam coal trade, which has been its important participant for years. The research covered the years 2014–2018. The geographical location on two continents and the availability of coal deposits, favors its presence on both the Pacific and Atlantic markets. The article also discusses the main coal producers in Russia and the prices of Russian steam coal directed to the spot market. Due to the significant share of coal exports for the Russian economy, the focus was also on analyzing Russian seaports. In recent years, Asian exports have dominated in Russian steam coal exports. The share of export to this market in the years 2014–2018 was in the range of 49–57% (60–87 million tons). Currently, three countries play an important role among Asian countries: South Korea, China and J apan. They purchased a total of 38–52 million tons of Russian coal. Although in the years under analysis Russia exported 52–67 million tons of steam coal to the European market, the share of this market dropped from almost half to around 40%. T he slow departure from coal energy contributes to reducing the share of recipients from this direction. Among European countries, in 2014 the main direction of export was Great Britain with 19% (24 million tons) of total export share. In 2018, exports fell to 9 million tons (5%). Among European destinations for Russian coal, Poland’s share is growing in importance. In the years 2014–2018, steam coal exports to Poland varied in the range of 5.6–16.2 million tons. In the years 2014–2018 it changed in the range of 5.6–16.2 million tons. The dynamic growth achieved in the last three years is noteworthy. In relation to 2016, imports increased by 10.0 million tons and in 2018 amounted to as much as 16.1 million tons. The article also discusses the geographical structure of coal imports to Poland by railway border crossings and seaports.
The progressive processes of globalization and changes in the global, European and local economy require integrated efforts aimed at solving problems related to development at the national regional and the local level involving the environment, energy sources, climate and technological transformation issues. European Union Member States are given right to create an individual Energy mix. Coal will continue to play a major role in Poland’s energy mix during the next decades. Polish coal reserves can provide energy security for decades. Despite crude oil and natural gas growth in fuel consumption, coal will continue to be the stabilizer of energy security for the country and play an important role in Poland’s energy mix in the years to come. However, further coal consumption requires investments in low carbon technologies which are of high efficiency and in high-efficiency cogeneration. The validity of the full utilization of cogeneration potential should be highlighted. Operating cogeneration plants are more expensive than power plants but they are more efficient and generate less carbon emissions. In accordance with the assumptions of the Energy policy of Poland, a low-carbon economy with renewable Energy sources and nuclear Energy should be supported and developed, however the obsolete coal generators should be replaced with low-carbon high-efficient ones.
The determination of the content of ecotoxic elements directly in flue gas is important for determining its actual emission from coal combustion. Moreover, in the BAT for large combustion plants conclusions adopted in 2017, apart from tightening of pollutants emission standards, i.e. SO 2, NO x and dusts, and setting emission limits, among others, for mercury, the monitoring of the actual emission of toxic elements has been established with the use of specific analytical methods. The review and comparison of available methods of analyzing the content of elements in flue gases in accordance with American and European standards has been presented in the article. Moreover, the factors influencing the quality of the obtained measurement results were identified.
The purpose of the research was mapping, inventorization, and valorization of coal mining waste dumps from the mines of JSW SA company, for the needs of recovery of coal from the dump material as well as the reclamation and management of examined facilities. The valorization of post-mining waste dumps has been carried out using a methodology which considers the problems of reclamation, management, accessibility of the dumps as well as environmental hazards connected with disposing of mining and preparation wastes on the ground surface. An inventorization of 10 coal mining waste dumps coming from 6 mines of JSW SA including in their range 7 deposits: Borynia, Jastrzębie, Zofiówka, Budryk, Knurów, Szczygłowice and Pniówek was carried out. The source material within the localization of particular dumps was obtained from archival materials coming from coal mines and municipalities where the dumps are located. Verified data has been drawn on topographical map, which results in the map of coal mining waste dumps. The results of the valorization of the dumps comprise the defining of: the name of the dump, state of the dump, surface of the dump, accessibility, name of the coal mine from where the wastes come from, type of technical and biological reclamation and possibilities of coal recovery, which have been brought on the drawn map. Basing on collected and elaborated data, an attempt of defining of potential possibilities of recovery of coal from the dumps and connection of coal quality in the deposits of JSW SA and in waste material was made. The results of the research showed that in spite of preliminary information that a majority of the investigated dumps may be considered as potential facilities for coal recovery, ultimately the recovery is economically justified only in several cases (5 facilities).
The new legislative provisions, regulating the trade in solid fuels in our country, draw attention to the need to develop and improve methods and methods of managing hard coal sludge. The aim of the work was to show whether filtration parameters (mainly the permeability coefficient) of hard coal sludge are sufficient for construction of insulating layers in landfills at the stage of their closing and what is the demand for material in the case of such a procedure. The analysis was carried out for landfills for municipal waste in the Opolskie, Śląskie and Małopolskie provinces. For hard coal sludge, the permeability coefficient values are in the range of 10–8–10–11 m/s, with the average value of 3.16 × 10–9 m/s. It can be concluded that this material generally meets the criteria of tightness for horizontal and often vertical flows. When compaction, increasing load or mixing with fly ash from hard coal combustion and clays, the achieved permeability coefficient often lowers its values. Based on the analysis, it can be assumed that hard coal sludge can be used to build mineral insulating barriers. At the end of 2016, 50 municipal landfills were open in the Opolskie, Śląskie and Małopolskie Provinces. Only 36 of them have obtained the status of a regional installation, close to 1/3 of the municipal landfill are within the Major Groundwater Basin (MGB) range. The remaining storage sites will be designated for closure. Assuming the necessity to close all currently active municipal waste landfills, the demand for hard coal sludge amounts to a total of 1,779,000 m3 which, given the assumptions, gives a mass of 2,704,080 Mg. The total amount of hard coal sludge production is very high in Poland. Only two basic mining groups annually produce a total of about 1,500,000 Mg of coal sludge. The construction of insulating layers in landfills of inert, hazardous and non-hazardous and inert wastes is an interesting solution. Such an application is prospective, but it will not solve the problem related to the production and management of this waste material as a whole. It is important to look for further solutions.
According to International Energy Agency (IEA) energy security is the continuous supply of energy at acceptable prices. National energy is based primarily on its own energy resources such as hard coal and brown coal. The 88% of electric energy production from these minerals gives us full energy independence. Additionally, the energy production costs from these raw materials are the lowest compared to other technologies. Of these two, the energy produced from brown coal is characterized by the lowest unit technical generating cost. Poland has the resources of these minerals for decades to come, the experience related to mining and processing them, scientific and design facilities and technical facilities and factories producing machines and equipment for their own needs, as well as for export. Coal is and should remain an important source of electricity and heat supply in Poland for the next 25–50 years. It is one of the most reliable and profitable energy sources. This policy may be difficult in the next decades due to the exhaustion of the available resources of hard and brown coal. The conditions for the construction of new mines, and thus for the development of coal mining in Poland, are very interdisciplinary in legal, environmental, economic and reputational terms. Germany has similar problems. Despite the fact that it is an image of a country investing in renewable energy sources, which are pioneers of energy production from RES, in reality hard and brown coal are still the primary sources utilized to produce electric energy.
The aim of this paper is an analysis of the variability of the methane content in coal seams in the area of the Dębieńsko Mine and it’s relation to the geological structure of this coal deposit, and also the possibilities of a methane hazard in the areas of future coal mining and methane utilization as a fuel. The Dębieńsko coal deposit is located in the western part of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (USCB), on the boundary between folded and disjunctive tectonic zones. Coal exploitation in this area ended in 2000, but interest in this deposit is currently high due to plans to initiate coking coal mining. The area of the Dębieńsko mine is relatively well prospected because of the deep drillings (up to 2000 m in depth) carried out within it. The methane conditions of the deposit are varied, the methane content increases with depth according to northern pattern of methane distribution in the USCB, in which the high-methane zone occurs under the several hundred meters zone of natural outgassing of the coal seams. This zone is divided into two smaller methane sub-zones, the first (shallower) at a depth of 1000 m and the second (deeper) at 1700–1900 m. A sub-zone of lower methane content occurs between these two high-methane sub-zones. The most important reasons for this methane distribution are temperature and pressure facilitating the gas adsorption in coal seams, and also the presence of impermeable siltstones and shalestones as well as the maceral composition and coal rank of coal seams. The methane content also changes laterally in accordance with the tectonics of the area. The so called Knurów and Leszczyna Anticline with found increased methane content in coal seams in relation to neighboring areas as well as Orlova Overthrust together with the system of latitudinal faults of brittle tectonic regime which are possible pathways for methane migration play a special role here. These structures can be taken into account as a potential source of methane hazard in a future coal mine, they can also be promising structures for methane prospection as a fuel.
Nowadays, actions allowing for a reduction of anthropogenic mercury emission are taken worldwide. Great emphasis is placed on reducing mercury emission from the processes of energochemical coal conversion, mainly from the coal combustion processes. One of the methods which enable a reduction of anthropogenic mercury emission is the removal of mercury from coal before its conversion. It should be pointed out that mercury in hard coal may occur both in the organic and mineral matter. Therefore, a universal method should allow for the removal of mercury, combined in both ways, from coal. In the paper, a concept of the hybrid mercury removal process from hard coal was presented. The idea of the process is based on the combination of the coal cleaning process using wet or dry methods (first stage) and the thermal pretreatment process at a temperature in the range from 200 to 400 °C (second stage). In the first stage, a part of mercury occurring in the mineral matter is removed. In the second stage, a part of mercury occurring in the organic matter as well as in some inorganic constituents characterized by a relatively low temperature of mercury release is removed. Based on the results of the preliminary research, the effectiveness of the decrease in mercury content in coal in the hybrid process was estimated in the range from 36 to 75% with the average at the level of 58%. The effect of the decrease in mercury content in coal is much more significant when mercury content is referred to a low heating value of coal. So determined, the effectiveness was estimated in the range from 36 to 75% with the average at the level of 58%.
Dynamic Mine disasters can be induced by the instability and failure of a composite structure of rock and coal layers during coal mining. Coal seam contains many native defects, severely affecting the instability and failure of the compound structure. In this study, the effects of coal persistent joint on the strength and failure characteristics of coal-rock composite samples were evaluated using PFC2D software. The results show that with the increase of included angle α between the loading direction and joint plane direction, the uniaxial compressive stress (UCS) and peak strain of composite samples first decrease and then gradually increase. The elastic moduli of composite samples do not change obviously with α. The peak strain at α of 45° is the lowest, and the UCS at α of 30° is the smallest. This is inconsistent with theoretical analysis of lowest UCS at α of 45°. This is because that the local stress concentration caused by the motion inconformity of composite samples may increase the average axial stress of upper wall in PFC2D software. Moreover, the coal persistent joint promotes the transformation from the unstable crack expansion to the macro-instability of composite samples, especially at α of 30° and 45°. The majority of failures for composite samples occur within the coal, and no obvious damage is observed in rock. Their failure modes are shear failure crossing or along the coal persistent joint. The failure of composite sample at α of 30° is a mixed failure, including the shear failure along the persistent joint in coal and tensile failure of rock induced by the propagation of coal persistent joint.
Because of the value of time, investors are interested in obtaining economic benefits rather early and at a highest return. But some investing opportunities, e.g. mineral projects, require from an investor to freeze their capital for several years. In exchange for this, they expect adequate remuneration for waiting, uncertainty and possible opportunities lost. This compensation is reflected in the level of interest rate they demand. Commonly used approach of project evaluation – the discounted cash flow analysis – uses this interest rate to determine present value of future cash flows. Mining investors should worry about project’s cash flows with greater assiduousness – especially about those arising in first years of the project lifetime. Having regard to the mining industry, this technique views a mineral deposit as complete production project where the base sources of uncertainty are future levels of economic-financial and technical parameters. Some of them are more risky than others – this paper tries to split apart and weigh their importance by the example of Polish hard coal projects at the feasibility study. The work has been performed with the sensitivity analysis of the internal rate of return. Calculations were made using the ‘bare bones’ assumption (on all the equity basis, constant money, after tax, flat price and constant operating costs), which creates a good reference and starting point for comparing other investment alternatives and for future investigations. The first part introduces with the discounting issue; in the following sections the paper presents data and methods used for spinning off risk components from the feasibility-stage discount rate and, in the end, some recommendations are presented.
The paper presents the correlation between the CRI (Coke Reactivity Index), CSR (Coke Strength after Reaction) and the remaining 36 quality parameters of coking coal from the Pniówek deposit (SW part of the USCB). The test results were obtained for a region of fundamental importance to the Polish reserves of coking coal, characterized by highly variable coalification and quality parameters. The tests related to the determination of relationships of the CRI and CSR indices to other parameters were based on 25 channel samples acquired from active workings. The characteristics of the variability of the CRI and CSR indices were analyzed using statistical methods. The dependencies between the CRI and CSR indices and the parameters having an impact on their values were determined using linear correlation. An attempt was also made to determine the correlations between the concerned parameters using the multiple correlation method. The obtained results have been presented and compared to the results of globally conducted experiments in the form of charts presented by (North et al. 2018b). No clear dependence of the CRI and CSR indices was exhibited in case of most of the analyzed quality parameters, which is supported by low correlation coefficients of r < 0.5. The statistical analysis exhibited only 9 cases of correlation between CRI and CSR with other quality parameters, where the correlation coefficient was r ≥ 0.5, that is: Ht a, Na2O, Al2O3 and SiO2, Mn3O4, da a and dr a. This confirms the different characteristics of coal from the studied area, exhibited multiple times, that should be related to the specific coalification process, especially the occurrence of thermal metamorphism.
The aim of the study is to determine the mercury content in hard coal, randomly taken from the USCB and in by-products of hard coal mining (fresh mining waste), i.e. aggregates (gangue) and hard coal sludge and mining waste from the Siersza dump (weathered waste). The 34 samples were intended for analysis. The total mercury content and the amount of mercury leaching from solid samples was determined. The percentage of the leaching form in the total element content, i.e. the level of mercury release from the material (leaching level), was also calculated. The amount of mercury leaching was determined by a static method using a batch test 1:10. The highest possibility of leaching mercury is characterized by weathered waste from the Siersza dump and slightly lower analyzed hard coal from the U pper Silesian Coal Basin (USCB). For hard coal samples, the total mercury content is between 0.0275–0.1236 mg/kg. However, the amount of mercury leaching from coal samples is 0.0008–0.0077 mg/kg. The aggregate is characterized by a higher total mercury content in the finest fraction 0–6 mm, within 0.1377–0.6107 mg/kg and much lower in the 80-120 mm fraction, within 0.0508–0.1274 mg/kg. The amount of elution is comparable in both fractions and amounts to 0.0008–0.0057 mg/kg. Coal sludge has a total mercury content of 0.0937–0.2047 mg/kg. L ow leaching values of 0.0014–0.0074 mg/ kg are also observed. Weathered mining waste has a total mercury content of 0.0622–0.2987 mg/kg. However, leaching values from weathered waste are much higher than from fresh mining waste. This value is 0.0058–0.0165 mg/kg. In the hard coal extracted from U SCB, the leaching level is 4.7% on average. Mining waste is characterized by a large variation in the proportion of mercury leaching form and the differences result from the seasoning time of the samples. Waste or by-products of hard coal production, such as aggregates and coal sludge, show a mercury washout form at an average level of 1.7%. The proportion of leachable form in weathered waste increased strongly to 7.3%. Elution characteristics vary for different groups of materials tested. Factors such as the type and origin of samples, their granulometric composition and the seasoning time of the material are of fundamental importance and demonstrated in the work.
The new legislative provisions, regulating the solid fuel trade in Poland, and the resolutions of provincial assemblies assume, inter alia, a ban on the household use of lignite fuels and solid fuels produced with its use; this also applies to coal sludge, coal flotation concentrates, and mixtures produced with their use. These changes will force the producers of these materials to find new ways and methods of their development, including their modification (mixing with other products or waste) in order to increase their attractiveness for the commercial power industry. The presented paper focuses on the analysis of coal sludge, classified as waste (codes 01 04 12 and 01 04 81) or as a by-product in the production of coals of different types. A preliminary analysis aimed at presenting changes in quality parameters and based on the mixtures of hard coal sludge (PG SILESIA) with coal dusts from lignite (pulverized lignite) (LEAG) has been carried out. The analysis of quality parameters of the discussed mixtures included the determination of the calorific value, ash content, volatile matter content, moisture content, heavy metal content (Cd, Tl, Hg, Sb, As, Pb, Cr, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, and W), and sulfur content. The preliminary analysis has shown that mixing coal sludge with coal dust from lignite and their granulation allows a product with the desired quality and physical parameters to be obtained, which is attractive to the commercial power industry. Compared to coal sludge, granulates made of coal sludge and coal dust from lignite with or without ground dolomite have a higher sulfur content (in the range of 1–1.4%). However, this is still an acceptable content for solid fuels in the commercial power industry. Compared to the basic coal sludge sample, the observed increase in the content of individual toxic components in the mixture samples is small and it therefore can be concluded that the addition of coal dust from lignite or carbonates has no significant effect on the total content of the individual elements. The calorific value is a key parameter determining the usefulness in the power industry. The size of this parameter for coal sludge in an as received basis is in the range of 9.4–10.6 MJ/kg. In the case of the examined mixtures of coal sludge with coal dust from lignite, the calorific value significantly increases to the range of 14.0–14.5 MJ/kg (as received). The obtained values increase the usefulness in the commercial power industry while, at the same time, the requirements for the combustion of solid fuels are met to a greater extent. A slight decrease in the calorific value is observed in the case of granulation with the addition of CaO or carbonates. Taking the analyzed parameters into account, it can be concluded that the prepared mixtures can be used in the combustion in units with flue gas desulfurization plants and a nominal thermal power not less than 1 MW. At this stage of work no cost analysis was carried out.
The paper discusses the current situation as well as the perspectives for hard coal extraction in India, a global leader both in terms of hard coal output and import volumes. Despite this, over 300 million people lack access to electricity in this country. The main energy resource of India is hard coal and Coal India Limited (CI L) is the world’s biggest company dealing with hard coal extraction. CI L has over 450 mines, employs over 400,000 people, and extracts ca. 430 million tons of hard coal from its 471 mining facilities. India is planning the decisive development of hard coal mining to extract 1.5 billion tons in 2020. Hard coal output in India can be limited due to the occurrence of various threats, including the methane threat. The biggest methane threat occurs in the mines in the Jharia basin, located in East India (the Jharkhand province), where coal methane content is up to ca. 18 m3/Mg. Obtaining methane from coal seams is becoming a necessity. The paper provides guidelines for the classification of particular levels of the methane threat in Indian’s mines. The results of methane sorption tests, carried by the use of the microgravimetric method on coal from the Moonidih mine were presented. Sorption capacities and the diffusion coefficient of methane on coal were determined. The next step was to determine the possibility of degassing the seam, using numerical methods based on the value of coal diffusion coefficient based on Crank’s diffusion model solution. The aim of this study was the evaluation of coal seam demethanization possibilities. The low diffusivity of coal, combined with a minor network of natural cracks in the seam, seems to preclude foregoing demethanization carried out by means of coal seam drilling, without prior slotting.
This paper presents the results of research focused on the lowering of ash flow temperature at semianthracite coal from Donbas district by means of additive (calcite) dosing. Ash fusion temperatures were set for two coal samples (A, B) and for five various states (samples of ash without any additives, with 1%, with 3%, with 5% and with 7% of the additive) in total. The macroscopicphotographic method was used for identifying all specific temperatures. Obtained outputs prove that A type coal has a lower value of sphere temperature than B type coal in the whole scope of percentage representation of the additive. The flow temperature dropped in total from 1489 °C to 1280 °C, i.e. by 14% during the test of coal of type A with 7% of the additive; while it was near 10% for coal of type B (from 1450 °C to 1308 °C). Numerical simulations of the process showed that it is not effective to add an additive with a grain size lower than 280 μm by means of wastevapour burners.