The article discusses the process of copper production in a slurry furnace and in a converter, with the indication of corrosion effects of the extractor. The furnace shaft and settling furnace of the flash furnace were analyzed. The basic factors determining the choice of singlestage technology of copper smelting in relation to the exploitation of refractory materials were indicated. The effects of dissolving the furnace lining material through slag have been presented. Structural analysis results using a scanning microscope are also included. The kinetics of destruction of ceramic materials under the influence of copper slag were evaluated. It has been shown that detailed analyzes are necessary in order to extend the time of furnace extensibility of furnaces in copper processes. The surface layer of the crucible softens due to saturation with slag reagents and is then washed out and moves in the solid form to the slag. The research in the article indicate not only the possibility of dissolution of the ceramic material in the molten slag, but also possibility of erosive activity of the slag on that material.
The paper discusses the possibility of improving resistance of heat exchangers made of gray cast iron with flake graphite to hightemperature corrosion by providing them with metallic coatings. A metallic coating containing 76.9% Ni, 19.8% Cr, 1.7% Si, 0.9% Fe, and 0.9% Mn was applied by means of the plasma spraying method and subjected to cyclically variable thermal loads in the atmosphere of solid fuels combustion products (oxygen, sulfur, chlorine, and sodium). In a 30-day thermal load test held at temperature 500°C it has been found that thickness of the metallic coating decreased from the initial (240 ± 6) μm to (231 ± 6) μm. The depth to which sulfur, chlorine, and sodium penetrated the coating was about 30 μm. Increased oxygen content occurred along the whole coating depth. In the coating area adjacent to the substrate surface, the content was twice as high compared to this observed in the initial coating material. Although presence of oxygen was found within the whole depth of the coating, i.e. (231 ± 6) μm, no signs of susceptibility of the sprayed metallic layer to separation from substrate of gray cast iron with flake graphite were found.
Air abrasion process is used for cleaning casting surface of prosthetic components, and to prepare the surface of these elements for the application of veneering items. Its side effect, however, is that abrasive particles are embedded in the treated surface, which can be up to 30% of the surface and it constitutes the side effect of this procedure. Such a significant participation of foreign material can not be indifferent to the properties of the surface. Embedded particles can be the place of stress concentration causing cracking of ceramics, and may deteriorate corrosion resistance by forming corrosive microlinks. In the latter cases, it would be advisable to remove elements embedded into the surface. The simplest method is chemical etching or electrochemical one. Nevertheless, these procedures should not significantly change the parameters of the surface. Among many possible reagents only a few fulfills all the above conditions. In addition, processing should not impair corrosion resistance of titanium, which is one of the most important factors determining its use as a prosthetic restoration in the mouth. The study presented results of corrosion resistance of titanium used to make prosthetic components by means of casting method, which were subjected to chemical processing designed to remove the embedded abrasive particles. The aim of the study was to investigate whether etching with selected reagents affects the corrosion resistance of titanium castings. For etching the following reagents were used: 30% HNO3 + 3% HF + H2O, HNO3+ HF+ glycerol (1:2:3), 4% HF in H2O2, 4% HF in H2O, with a control sandblasted sample, not subjected to etching. Tests demonstrated that the etching affected corrosion properties of test samples, in each case the reduction of the corrosion potential occurred - possibly due to the removal of particles of Al2O3 from the surface and activation of the surface. None of the samples underwent pitting corrosion as a result of polarization to 9 V. Values of the polarization resistance, and potentiodynamic characteristics indicated that the best corrosion resistance exhibited the samples after etching in a mixture of 4% solution of HF in H2O2. They showed very good passivation of the surface.
Among the copper based alloys, Cu-Al-X bronzes are commonly used as mold materials due to their superior physical and chemical properties. Mold materials suffer from both wear and corrosion, thus, it is necessary to know which one of the competitive phenomenon is dominant during the service conditions. In this study, tribo-corrosion behavior of CuAl10Ni5Fe4 and CuAl14Fe4Mn2Co alloys were studied and electrochemical measurements were carried out using three electrode system in 3.5 % NaCl solution in order to evaluate their corrosion resistance. In tribo-corrosion tests, alloys were tested against zirconia ball in 3.5 % NaCl solution, under 10N load with 0.04 m/s sliding speed during 300 and 600 m. The results indicate that (i) CuAl10Ni5Fe4 alloy is more resistant to NaCl solution compared to CuAl14Fe4Mn2Co alloy that has major galvanic cells within its matrix, (ii) although CuAl10Ni5Fe4 alloy has lower coefficient of friction value, it suffers from wear under dry sliding conditions, (iii) as the sliding distance increases, corrosion products on CuAl14Fe4Mn2Co surface increase at a higher rate compared to CuAl10Ni5Fe4 leading to a decrease in volume loss due to the lubricant effect of copper oxides.
This paper presents the results of Cr - Ni 18/9 austenitic cast steel modifications by mischmetal. The study was conducted on industrial melts. Cast steel was melted in an electric induction furnace with a capacity of 2000 kg and a basic lining crucible. .The mischmetal was introduced into the ladle during tapping of the cast steel from the furnace. The effectiveness of modification was examined with the carbon content of 0.1% and the presence of δ ferrite in the structure of cast steel stabilized with titanium. The changes in the structure of cast steel and their effect on mechanical properties and intergranular corrosion were studied. It was found that rare earth metals decrease the sulfur content in cast steel and above all, they cause a distinct change in morphology of the δ ferrite and non-metallic inclusions. These changes have improved mechanical properties. R02, Rm, and A5 and toughness increased significantly. There was a great increase of the resistance to intergranular corrosion in the Huey test. The study confirmed the high efficiency of cast steel modification by mischmetal in industrial environments. The final effect of modification depends on the form and manner of placing mischmetal into the liquid metal and the melting technology, ie the degree of deoxidation and desulfurization of the metal in the furnace.
The influence of external factors, temperature and flow velocity on the corrosion processes St3 in model solutions petrochemical plant recycled water with high salinity and hardness without open systems and in the presence of the inhibiting composition. It was found that an increase in temperature leads to a linear increase in corrosion rates, and the change in circulating water flow rate leads to the extreme nature of corrosion processes; optimal conditions are determined. Recommended use of cathodic inhibitors or mixed type inhibitor, in particular, the composition "SVOD-BI" (means for controlling the biological corrosion), which can significantly reduce the effect of temperature and flow on the corrosion rate St3, promotes the growth and strengthening of the oxide film in the presence of oxygen, increases the degree of protection of steel and preventing the formation of at its surface carbonate-calcium deposits.
The aeronautical industry is a sector constantly looking for new materials and equipment because of its tendency to expand quickly. The Ti6Al4V titanium alloy is used frequently in the aeronautic, aerospace, automobile, chemical and medical industry because it presents high strength combined with low density (approximately 4.5 g/cm3), good creep resistance (up to 550°C), excellent corrosion resistance, high flexibility, good fatigue and biocompatibility. As a result of these properties, this titanium alloy is considered an excellent material for manufacturing structural parts in the aircraft industry for modern aeronautic structures, especially for airframes and aero-engines. But its use is also problematic because the Ti6Al4V titanium alloy manifests hydrogen embrittlement, by means of hydrides precipitation in the metal. The Ti6Al4V alloy becomes brittle and fractures because of hydrogen diffusion into metal and because titanium hydrides appear and create pressure from within the metal, thus generating corrosion. Because of titanium hydrides, the titanium alloy suffers from reduced ductility, tensile strength and toughness, which can result in fractures of aeronautical parts. This poses a very serious problem for aircrafts. In this paper, rapid hydrogen embrittlement is presented along with XRD, SEM and TEM analysis. Its goal is to detect the presence of titanium hydrides and to spot the initial cracks in the metallic material.
Point of present exploration was to figure out the anticorrosion activity of Acacia Cyanophylla (Saligna leaves) extract on the corrosion of mild steel in dilute sulfuric acid medium, using weight loss measurements and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The result of the study revealed that the extract act as a potent inhibitor on mild steel in acid medium. The increase in inhibitor concentration and immersion time showed a positive effect on inhibition efficiency. EIS exhibited one capacitive loop which indicates that the corrosion reaction is controlled by charge transfer process. The increase of phase shift (n) in presence of (ACLE) lower surface roughness. This change reveals the adsorption of the inhibitor compound on the steel surface. According to the results of weight loss measurements, the adsorption of the extract on the steel surface can be described by the Langmuir isotherm. The inhibition mechanism of (ACLE) molecules involves physical interaction between the inhibitor and metal surface. Additionally, Protective film formation against acid attack was confirmed by FT-IR and AFM techniques.
The paper contains the results of the initial surface treatment influence on the properties of the medical Ti-6Al-7Nb alloy with a modified zirconium oxide layer deposited on its surface by sol-gel method. In the paper, the analysis of results of potentiodynamic studies is presented as well as its resistance to pitting corrosion and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), macroscopic observation of the surface of samples and analysis of geometrical structure with the use Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) were performed. The studies were performed on two groups of samples depending on the graduation of the sand used in sandblasted process – 50 μm and 250 μm. Based on the obtained results it can be concluded that the type of the initial surface treatment preceding the surface modification of the Ti-6Al-7Nb has a significant effect on its properties.
The microstructure and corrosion properties of spark plasma sintered yttria dispersed and yttria free duplex and ferritic stainless samples were studied. Spark plasma sintering (SPS) was carried out at 1000°C by applying 50 MPa pressure with holding time of 5 minutes. Linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) tests were employed to evaluate pitting corrosion resistance of the samples. Corrosion studies were carried out in 0.5, 1 and 2 M concentration of NaCl and H2SO4 solutions at different quiet time of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 seconds. Yttria dispersed stainless steel samples show more resistance to corrosion than yttria free stainless steel samples. Pitting potential decreases with increase in reaction time from 2 to 10 seconds. Similarly, as concentration of NaCl and H2SO4 increases from 0.5 M to 2 M the corrosion resistance decrements due to the availability of more Cl¯ and SO4 2¯ ions at higher concentration.
The aim of the paper is to study the effect of zinc addition on the corrosion behavior of Ca65–xMg17.5Zn17.5+x (x = 0, 2.5, 5 at.%) alloys in simulated physiological fluids at 37°C. The electrochemical measurements allowed to determine a corrosion potential, which showed a positive shift from –1.60 V for Ca65Mg17.5Zn17.5 alloy to –1.58 V for Ca60Mg17.5Zn22.5 alloy, adequately. The more significant decrease of hydrogen evolution was noticed for Ca60Mg17.5Zn22.5 alloy (22.4 ml/cm2) than for Ca62.5Mg17.5Zn20 and Ca65Mg17.5Zn17.5 samples (29.9 ml/cm2 and 46.4 ml/cm2), consequently. The corrosion products after immersion tests in Ringer’s solution during 1 h were identified by X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy as calcium, magnesium oxides, carbonates, hydroxides and calcium hydrate.
The safe and reliable operation of pressurized water reactors (PWRs) depends on the integrity of structural material. In particular, the failure of steam generator (SG) tubes on the secondary side is one of the major concerns of operating nuclear power plants. To establish remediation techniques and manage damage, it is necessary to articulate the mechanism through which various impurities affect the SG tubes. This research aims to understand the effect of impurities (e.g., S, Pb, and Cl) on the stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 600 and 690.
Within the presented work, the effect of austenite transformation on abrasive wear as well as on rate and nature of corrosive destruction of spheroidal Ni-Mn-Cu cast iron was determined. Cast iron contained: 3.1÷3.4 %C, 2.1÷2.3 %Si, 2.3÷3.3 %Mn, 2.3÷2.5 %Cu and 4.8÷9.3 %Ni. At a higher degree of austenite transformation in the alloys with nickel equivalent below 16.0%, abrasive wear resistance was significantly higher. Examinations of the corrosion resistance were carried out with the use of gravimetric and potentiodynamic method. It was shown that higher degree of austenite transformation results in significantly higher abrasive wear resistance and slightly higher corrosion rate, as determined by the gravimetric method. However, results of potentiodynamic examinations showed creation of a smaller number of deep pinholes, which is a favourable phenomenon from the viewpoint of corrosion resistance.
In the paper, a relationship between chemical composition of Ni-Mn-Cu cast iron and its structure, hardness and corrosion resistance is determined. The examinations showed a decrease of thermodynamic stability of austenite together with decreasing nickel equivalent value, in cast iron solidifying according to both the stable and the metastable systems. As a result of increasing degree of austenite transformation, the created martensite caused a significant hardness increase, accompanied by small decline of corrosion resistance. It was found at the same time that solidification way of the alloy and its matrix structure affect corrosion resista
Cast stainless steel of the Cr-Ni duplex type is used, among others, for the cast parts of pumps and valves handling various chemically aggressive media. Therefore, the main problem discussed in this article is the problem of abrasion wear resistance in a mixture of SiC and water and resistance to electrochemical corrosion in a 3% NaCl- H2O solution of selected cast steel grades, i.e. typical duplex cast steel, high silicon and manganese duplex cast steel, and Cr-Ni austenitic cast steel (type AISI 316L). The study shows that the best abrasion wear resistance comparable to Ni-Hart cast iron was obtained in the cast duplex steel, where Ni was partially replaced with Mn and N. This cast steel was also characterized by the highest hardness and matrix microhardness among all the tested cast steel grades. The best resistance to electrochemical corrosion in 3% NaCl- H2O solution showed the cast duplex steel with high content of Cr, Mo and N. The addition of Ni plays rather insignificant role in the improvement of corrosion resistance of the materials tested.
In this paper, the effect of changes the parameters of heat treatment on the structure and the degree of elements segregation was determined, in the context of corrosion resistance of ductile iron Ni-Mn-Cu, containing 7.2% Ni, 2.6% Mn and 2.4% Cu. In the condition after casting, castings of austenitic matrix and 160HBW hardness were obtained. The achieved castings were soaked at 450, 550 and 650°C for 4, 8 and 12 hours, then cooled down at the ambient air. In most cases, the heat treatment resulted in a change in the castings matrix, had the consequence of increasing their hardness in comparison to raw castings. Increasing the temperature and prolonging soaking time resulted in increasing the degree of transformation of austenite, while reducing the degree of elements segregation. This led to the formation of slightly bigger number of pitting due to corrosion, but not so deep and more evenly distributed in comparison to raw castings. Wherein the results of corrosion tests show that heat treatment of castings did not significantly change their corrosion resistance in comparison to raw castings, in contrast to the significant increase in mechanical properties.
The paper is a presentation of a study on issues concerning degradation of protective paint coat having an adverse impact on aesthetic qualities of thin-walled cast-iron castings fabricated in furan resin sand. Microscopic examination and microanalyses of chemistry indicated that under the coat of paint covering the surface of a thin-walled casting, layers of oxides could be found presence of which can be most probably attributed to careless cleaning of the casting surface before the paint application process, as well as corrosion pits evidencing existence of damp residues under the paint layers contributing to creation of corrosion micro-cells
In this work, the effect of the microstructure on corrosion behavior of selected Mg- and Al-based as cast alloys, was evaluated. The electrochemical examinations were carried out, and then a morphology of corrosion products formed due to local polarization on materials surface, was analyzed. It was documented that the presence of Mg2Si phase plays an important role in the corrosion course of Mg-based alloy. A selective etching was observed in sites of Mg2Si precipitates having “Chinese script”- like morphology. Analogous situation was found for Al-based alloy, where the key role was played by cathodic θ-CuAl2 phase.
Deep cryogenic treatment (DCT) is gaining popularity as a treatment used to modify structures obtained during heat or thermo-chemical treatment. The article presents the influence of DCT, carried out during heat treatment before and after gas nitriding processes, on the formation of gas nitrided layers on X153CrMoV12 steel. It was found that the use of DCT between quenching and tempering performed prior to gas nitriding processes, increases the hardness, thickness and wear resistance of the nitrided layers. At the same time, if we apply cryogenic treatment during post-heat treatment of nitrided layers, we also get very high wear resistance and increased thickness of nitrided layers, in comparison with conventional gas nitriding of X153CrMoV12 steel. In this case, DCT significantly increases also the hardness of the core by the transformation of retained austenite and the precipitation of fine carbides of alloying elements.