The article is an invitation to discuss the way of understanding human development as an actualization of individual’s potential. I present two opposite approaches to this particular problem: human development as choosing preferable potentials and also as striving to actualization of, in some way, every potential, especially these which concern the uniqueness of an individual. In the following parts of the article I locate the problem of human potential in three main discourses regarding: 1) human nature and its origin, 2) the possibility of full experience of individual lifespan 3) the possibility of influence through people on the content and the form of their actualizing potential. To the latter and strictly practical issue I pay most attention. I formulate five thesis regarding this issue. They may, in my opinion, be a starting point to discuss the general problem mentioned above. Therefore, they encourage to think about the mechanism of human development and the future environment of his life.
The concept of ecosystem services becomes more and more popular in regulation of the environmental protection. One of the premises of that concept is treatment of a human and human activity as an integral part of an ecosystem. Interrelations between human activity and ecosystem can be described through the concept of ecosystem services. A certain degree of commodification of natural environment which is immanently connected with the concept of ecosystem services can become useful as a tool of assessing the impact of human activities on ecosystem as well as regulating that impact. Marine protection law is a good example of attempts to introduce the interrelated concepts of ecosystem approach and ecosystem services into functioning of the regulatory schemes.
This article aims to discuss the notion of environmental damage under the CLC 1992 and FUND 1992 as stated in the new Guidelines for Presenting Claims for Environmental Damage prepared by the International Oil Pollution Compensation Funds. That approach is contrasted with the solution adopted in the United States of America under the OPA. Particular attention is given to the problems of compensation for lost services of the environment, as well as providing alternative environment as a restoration measure. The judgments of French and Spanish courts in the Erika and Prestige cases are discussed, raising questions as to suitability of the CLC 1992/FUND 1992 system.
The aim of this paper is to discuss energy certification systems and multi-criteria certification schemes – both the assessment tools focusing on the level of the single building and on the urban level. The role of certification systems and the emerging technologies as a means of reducing energy consumption and achieving the high energy quality of the built environment is investigated.
The study of the relationship “the natural qualities of water – the naturally built environment – the psycho- emotional conditions of human beings” from the perspective of architectural and landscape organization is essential nowadays. By investigating modern monuments we identified the methods of landscaping and composition planning to create the appropriate environment to emotionally impact the persons dealing with grief, sadness and loss. The conducted analysis of modern memorials allowed us to explore the role of water as an important compositional element in the architectural and landscape organization of monument sites. We also identified different methods of modeling water and how they affect related emotional impressions in creating the urban social environment that would preserve the historical and cultural memory from generation to generation.
It is assumed that close to the margins of ice-sheets, glacial, fluvial and aeolian processes overlap, and combined with weathering processes, produce numerous sediments, in which quartz is a common mineral. Quartz grains, if available, may serve as a powerful tool in determining the depositional history, transportation mode and postdepositional processes. However, quartz grain studies in some modern glacial areas are still sparse. In this study, we examine for the first time quartz grains sampled from the modern glacial and proglacial environments of the Russell Glacier, southwest Greenland in binocular microscope and scanning electron microscope, to analyze their shape, character of surface and microtextures. We debate whether the investigated quartz grains reveal glacial characteristics and to what extent they carry a signal of another transportation and sedimentary processes. Although glacial fracturing and abrasion occur in grain suites, most mechanical origin features are not of a high frequency or freshness, potentially suggesting a reduced shear stress in the glacier from its limited thickness and influence of the pressurized water at the ice-bed. In contrast, the signal that originates from the fluvial environment is much stronger derived by numerous aqueous-induced features present on quartz grain surfaces. Aeolian-induced microtextures on grain surfaces increase among the samples the closest to the ice margin, which may be due to enhanced aeolian activity, but are practically absent in sediments taken from the small scale aeolian landforms. In contrast, aeolian grains have been found in the bigger-size (1.0-2.0 mm) investigated fraction. These grains gained the strongest aeolian abrasion, possibly due to changes in transportation mode.
A questionnaire survey was conducted in the residential quarters of Guangzhou, for which 582 elderly people over 60 years old were randomly recruited. The hearing impairment of the participants was evaluated using the Hearing Handicap Inventory for the Elderly (HHIE), The participants’ subjective responses to the acoustical environment of their living place and the impact of the living acoustical environment (LAE) on the participants were investigated. The results show that the participants with a low HHIE score and no hearing impairment evaluated their LAE more favourably, and they considered that the effect of the LAE on their daily life was weak. However, those with a high HHIE score and severe hearing impairment evaluated their LAE poorly, and considered its effect on their daily lives to be significant. For the elderly, the worse the hearing is, the higher their demand for a better LAE. Traffic, construction, residential quarters, and noise from next door or upstairs neighbours were the main noise sources in the elderly’s living places, and traffic noise, construction noise, and noise from next door and upstairs were the most influential sources. 28.9% of the respondents had trouble hearing what their family said in their living place. The elderly without hearing impairment considered that continuous noise was the main reason that they could not hear what their family said in their living place, while those with hearing impairment believed that their own hearing problem was a contributing factor.
The article describes selected issues falling within the scope of the technical analysis of a detached building’s heating system with a direct evaporation ground source heat pump installation. This paper covers the characteristics of modernized facility as well as calculations to determine the heat demand. What is more, the article describes the manner in which heat pumps shall be selected, its installation components as well as the receiving installation.
This malacological analysis was conducted at a site with peat and calcareous tufas in Łapsze Niżne, Podhale (southern Poland). The study was carried out in 6 main and several complementary sections, in which 37 mollusc species were recognized represented by almost 11 000 specimens. The study enabled the reconstruction of environmental changes during the accumulation of the Holocene deposits (from the Boreal Phase till present). Conclusions drawn from these reconstructions were compared with results of malacological and palynological studies from other sites in Podhale. As a result, regional environmental reconstructions for the Holocene of the area were made. The specific composition, ecological structure and succession of molluscan assemblages from Łapsze Niżne indicate a significant role for local factors, thus demonstrating the variability of environmental conditions within a geographic region.
Members of the Nyctaginaceae Jussieu. are distributed throughout southern Africa. Eight species of the family occur naturally in arid parts of Namibia. These species have acquired the ability to survive and reproduce in these dry conditions. They are xerophytes, which have been described as drought evaders, avoiders, and drought-tolerant. In the Nyctaginaceae, Boerhavia deserticola, B. hereroensis, Commicarpus helenae and C. squarrosus are thought to be drought avoiders. In this study we investigated their stem, leaf and anthocarp anatomy for adaptations to arid environments. The results indicated that the four species are avoiders, with modifications of the trichomes, secretions, crystals, secondary growth, Kranz mesophyll, water storage cells, tannins, mucilage, inner and outer stomatal ledges, large-diameter xylem vessels, and the presence of sclerenchyma in their stems, leaves and anthocarps. These adaptations enable the plants to tolerate arid conditions, conserve water and maintain a high photosynthetic rate, and aid seed dispersal.
The use of individualised Head Related Transfer Functions (HRTF) is a fundamental prerequisite for obtaining an accurate rendering of 3D spatialised sounds in virtual auditory environments. The HRTFs are transfer functions that define the acoustical basis of auditory perception of a sound source in space and are frequently used in virtual auditory displays to simulate free-field listening conditions. However, they depend on the anatomical characteristics of the human body and significantly vary among individuals, so that the use of the same dataset of HRTFs for all the users of a designed system will not offer the same level of auditory performance. This paper presents an alternative approach to the use on non-individualised HRTFs that is based on a procedural learning, training, and adaptation to altered auditory cues.We tested the sound localisation performance of nine sighted and visually impaired people, before and after a series of perceptual (auditory, visual, and haptic) feedback based training sessions. The results demonstrated that our subjects significantly improved their spatial hearing under altered listening conditions (such as the presentation of 3D binaural sounds synthesised from non-individualized HRTFs), the improvement being reflected into a higher localisation accuracy and a lower rate of front-back confusion errors.
This article presents data on the anthropogenic air emissions of selected substances (CO2, SO2, total suspended particles (TSP), dioxins and furans (PCDD/F), Pb and Cd) subject to reporting under the Climate Convention (UNFCCC) or the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (UNECE CLRTAP). It also presents the national emissions of these substances in 2014 by the major source categories and defines the share of metal production in these emissions. Analysis is based on national emission inventory reports. Most important source of air emission in case of CO2 and SO2 is 1.A.1 Energy industries category. TSP and PCDD/F are emitted mainly from fuel combustion in small sources (i.a. households). Emission of heavy metals (Pb and Cd) is connected mostly with 1.A.2. Manufacturing industries and construction category. Metallurgy is significant source of emission only for lead and cadmium from among all considered substances. The shares of particular sectors in the national emissions of given pollutants are important, in view of the possible reduction measures and the determination in which industries they could bring about tangible results.
No-bake process refers to the use of chemical binders to bond the moulding sand. Sand is moved to the mould fill station in preparation for filling of the mould. A mixer is used to blend the sand with the chemical binder and activator. As the sand exits the mixer, the binder begins the chemical process of hardening. This paper presents the results of decomposition of the moulding sands with modified ureafurfuryl resin (with the low content of furfuryl alcohol below 25 % and different activators: organic and inorganic) on a quartz matrix, under semi-industrial conditions. Investigations of the gases emission in the test foundry plant were executed according to the method extended in the Faculty of Foundry Engineering (AGH University of Science and Technology). Article presents the results of the emitted chosen aromatic hydrocarbons and loss on ignition compared with the different activators used to harden this resin. On the bases of the data, it is possible to determine the content of the emitted dangerous substances from the moulding sand according to the content of loss on ignition.
The results of investigations of the granulation process of foundry dusts generated in the dry mechanical reclamation process of used sands, where furan resins were binders are presented in the paper. Investigations concerned producing of granules of the determined dimensions and strength parameters. Granules were formed from the dusts mixture consisting in 50 mass% of dusts obtained after the reclamation of the furane sands and in 50 mass % of dusts from sands with bentonite. Dusts from the bentonite sands with water were used as a binder allowing the granulation of after reclamation dusts from the furane sands. The following parameters of the ready final product were determined: moisture content (W), shatter test of granules (Wz) performed directly after the granulation process and after 1, 3, 5, 10 days and nights of seasoning, water-resistance of granules after 24 hours of being immersed in water, surface porosity ep and volumetric porosity ev. In addition the shatter test and water-resistance of granulate dried at a temperature of 105oC were determined. Investigations were performed at the bowl angle of inclination 45o, for three rotational speeds of the bowl being: 10, 15, 20 rpm. For the speed of 10 rpm the granulation tests of dusts mixture after the preliminary mixing in the roller mixer and with the addition of water-glass in the amount of 2% in relation to the amount of dust were carried out. The obtained results indicate that the granulator allows to obtain granules from dusts originated from the reclamations of moulding sands with the furane resin with an addition of dusts from the bentonite sands processing plants.
This paper proposes an advanced routing method in the purpose of increasing IoT routing device’s power-efficiency, which allows to centralize routing tables computing as well as to push loading, related to routing tables computation, towards the Cloud environment at all. We introduced a phased solution for the formulated task. Generally, next steps were performed: stated requirements for the system with Cloud routing, proposed possible solution, and developed the whole system’s structure. For a proper study of the efficiency, the experiment was conducted using the developed system’s prototype for real-life cases, each represents own cluster size (several topologies by each size), used sizes are: 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, 19, 21, 23, 25, 27 and 29. Expectable results for this research – decrease the time of cluster’s reaction on topology changes (delay, needed to renew routing tables), which improves system’s adaptivity.
Recent studies have shown that over half of the world’s population lives in urban areas, with the number of people living in slums growing by over 20 million per year and people living in urban areas lacking access to adequate sanitation. This study presents a review of the challenges facing fecal sludge management (FSM). A globally relevant issue in developing urban centers, especially in selected developing countries in West Africa was discussed. Some key ﬁndings of the review are that effective sanitation in developing areas depends on the chain of services and that one of the largest problems in sanitation is FSM. This study presents the initial steps toward understanding the main issues involving FSM in developing cities of West Africa. Results are intended to be used as a support for decisions on policies, strategies for FSM, and investments for improved treatment facilities in the region. The study suggests that governments and private sector organizations should develop adequate measures for handling fecal sludge.
Air quality is crucial for human health and welfare. A large number of studies have indicated strong associations between ambient air pollution levels and adverse health effects. There is a considerable number of literature reports concerning changes in atmospheric greenhouse emissions, while relatively little is known on changes in atmospheric CO emissions. This paper presents the rate of changes in atmospheric CO emissions using the logarithmic method in the assessment of this rate. Studies were conducted based on source data from 32 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development countries. Analyses covered the period of 2005–2012. It was found that the average rate of changes had a negative average rate for most, although not all analyzed countries. In three of the 32 countries atmospheric CO emissions increased in that period. While the intensity of these changes varied, a defi nite majority of the countries reduced their CO emissions, whereas Turkey, Poland and Estonia increased their emissions.
Organic binders applied in foundry plants based on synthetic resins, from the one side influence obtaining the required technological properties by the moulding sand and – in consequence – obtaining good quality castings, and on the other side are the source of volatile organic compounds (VOC). Together with synthetic resins their hardeners, which although added in very small amounts emit during their thermal decomposition substances negatively influencing the natural environment, are also used. Both, resins and hardeners only at the influence of high temperatures accompanying moulds pouring with liquid metal generate harmful volatile organic compounds including compounds from the BTEX group. Investigations of the temperature influence on the kind and amount of organic compounds formed during the thermal decomposition of selected binders and hardeners and their mixtures allow to determine temperature ranges the most favourable for emitting harmful substances as well as to compare their emission from the selected materials. The aim of this study was the determination the temperature influence on formation substances from the BTEX group, during thermal decomposition of the selected binder, its hardener and their mixture. The BTEX group emission constitutes one of the basic criteria in assessing the harmfulness of materials applied for moulding and core sands and it can undergo changes in dependence of the applied system resin-hardener. Investigations were carried out on the specially developed system for the thermal decomposition of organic substances in the temperature range: 5000 C – 13000 C, at the laboratory scale. The investigations subject was the furan resin, its hardener and hardened furan resin. The assessment of the emission degree of the BTEX group in dependence of the system subjected to the temperature influence was performed, within the studies. The temperature range, in which maximal amounts of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes were emitted from tested materials – was defined. The qualitative and quantitative analysis of the BTEX group were carried out with using the gas chromatography technique coupled with the mass spectrometry (GC/MS).
The object of the investigation was metal contamination of bottom sediments of the Skroda and Chwaliszówka rivers, which are the right contributaries of the Lusatian Neisse river, draining the territory of the so called “anthropogenic lake district”. The district came into existence as a result of mining activities in the border of Silesia and Lusatia, which date from the half of 19th century to 1974. The district includes about 100 reservoirs, of the total area of over 150 ha, which are from about 30 to 100 years old. The rocks accompanying the Miocene coal-bearing formations were deposited on waste dumps. The dumps form embankments of the aquifers arising as a result of post-exploitation mining subsidence. The streams dewatering waste dumps inflow directly or indirectly to the Chwaliszówka and Skroda rivers. The pyrite is the mineral present in mine waste material. The pyrite weathering products inflow into surface waters and affect adversely the water quality. In the last stage of migration the pollutants are accumulated in the bottom sediments of rivers and lakes. The samples of bottom sediments of the two rivers were analysed by means of a five-step sequential extraction procedure performed for the partitioning of selected trace metals (Fe, Mn, As, Cr and Al). It was determined that the bottom sediments of the two analysed rivers contain significant concentrations of aluminium and iron. The concentrations of other metals (Mn, Cr and As) are in the range of geochemical background of water sediments in Poland. Concentrations of arsenium, chromium and manganese, which are bound to easy-available fractions (I – exchangeable and II – bound to carbonates) are not significant, so it could be assumed that they are not expected to be released and they do not threaten the river ecological system. There is, however, the possibility of the aluminium and iron re-mobilisation, taking into account the high concentrations of easy-available fractions of these metals in the sediment. Fe and Al are potential source of water contamination, and re-mobilisation of these metals will produce the aggravation of quality parameters of river waters.
Theory and practice of environmental protection in the case of foundries in Europe and Asia • Experience resulting from the cooperation with the foundries in a few European countries, China and India • Phenomena and factors affecting the pollution of the natural environment and the implementation of measures aiming at the environmental protection Every specialist dealing with foundry processes and their impact on environmental pollution must have encountered in their professional careers numerous situations in which the theory of environmental protection confronts the stark reality. The discrepancy between theory and practice can particularly be noticed in foundry engineering in developing countries where the contrasts between different countries and casting plants are extremely striking. The comparison of working conditions in European and Asian foundries provides a vast scope for further observations and analyses. Environmental protection seems not only a concern of manufacturers of castings, but also of their customers whose opinion exerts a significant influence on both the acceptability of working conditions and on the approach to environmental pollution adopted in metal casting industry. The article presents a number of examples of various outlooks on environmental issues in foundries manufacturing a wide range of cast steel and cast iron castings, where different technologies and production processes are applied.
This article is an attempt to apply the conceptual framework of social stigma and some specific strategies of coping with stigma, for the interpretations of interviews with young Jehovah’s Witnesses, representing high schools from Bialystok. According to several studies, the followers of the Watchtower Society – compared to members of other churches and religious – are faced with the most negative reactions of social audience, not only in Poland but also in other countries around the world. The presence of religion class in Polish schools produces specific conditions, in which the student religious identity becomes visible. Therefore, everyday classroom experiences of such students can be – compared to catholic majority and other religious minorities – much more difficult, involving not only potential negative stereotyping, but also the problem of how to deal with the school structural conditions, sometimes clearly being in conflict with the requirements of the Jehovah’s Witnesses religion.
The quantity of deposited metals was determined in the tissues of Cepaea nemoralis, Lumbricus terrestris and Geotrupes stercorarius, as well as in plant and soil samples from two locations characterized by different levels of human impact. The bioaccumulation factor (BAF) of metals in the bodies of these invertebrate taxa occupying the same habitats was compared, in relation to their content in Taraxacum officinale leaves and in the soil. Analysis of the content of metals in the bodies of selected species belonging to different taxonomic groups demonstrates the usefulness of these invertebrates in biomonitoring.
The aim of the paper is to evaluate the development of the Geoeducation Center in Kielce and to define ways and stage of creating its tourist brand. It is a new tourist attraction in the Świętokrzyskie region, which also plays role of informal education. Every year, this object is visited by approximately 40,000. tourists. Research has shown that the Geoeducation Center from the beginning of its operation consistently creates all the elements that make up the brand equity: awareness, perceived quality, associations and loyalty.
Lean manufacturing [LM], quality management system and environmental management system are clear initiatives with a goal of improving effectiveness and efficiencies of organizations. Many organisations tackle lean philosophy, ISO standards individually but this kind of attempt do not focus on the synergy and the advantage from the potential collaboration. This paper aims to present the possibility of integration Lean Management concept with ISO management systems – Quality Management System [QMS] ISO 9001and Environmental Management System [EMS] ISO 14001 already implemented in the enterprises. The integration of these three concepts can be obtain due to improvement of main KPI’s defined in the organization. Based on critical research literature and participant observation presented as a case study (one of the author of the paper works as a consultant and is being implemented Lean Manufacturing concept in different organization since ten years) authors defined concept of integration of EMS and QMS (already implemented in the organization) with chosen Lean Management tools. Concept has been developed based on literature analysis and experience of the authors. Results and summary from concept implementation has been described in last chapter of the paper.
The paper puts forward and implements a method of designing and creating a modelling simulation environment for extensive and complete analysis of economical lighting on highways. From a general design viewpoint, the proposed solution explores the concept of a network description language (SMOL), which has been designed to describe the necessary network functions, mechanisms, and devices for the purpose of their computer simulation and verification. The presented results of the performed research confirm the usability of intelligent lighting on highways, both in the sense of the design concept and in the aspect of saving energy.