Investment casting technology that utilizes lost-wax casting is one of the most-important achievements of ancient society. In Lower Silesia, Poland (Grzybiany, Legnica county), a 7-6 BC casting workshop was discovered with numerous artifacts, confirming the existence of the manufacturing process of metal ornaments using ceramic molds. The paper presents the research of molds and casts from the Bronze and Early Iron Ages. Microscopic analyses of the casting molds were performed, along with radiographic and chemical composition tests of the artifacts (the latter employing the use of the X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy method). The clustering method was used for alloy classification. The microstructure was analyzed by means of Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy. Conclusions from the research were utilized in further experiments
Bending strength, thermal and electric conductivity and microstructure examinations of Cu based composite materials reinforced with Saffil alumina fibres are presented. Materials were produced by squeeze casting method applying the designed device and specially elaborated production parameters. Applying infiltration pressure of 90MPa and suitable temperature parameters provided manufacturing of copper based composite materials strengthened with Saffil alumina fibres characterized by the low rest porosity and good fibre-matrix interface. Three point bending tests at temperatures of 25, 100 and 300ºC were performed on specimens reinforced with 10, 15 and 20% of Saffil fibres. Introduced reinforcement effected on the relatively high bending strengths at elevated temperatures. In relation to unreinforced Cu casting strength of composite material Cu – 15vol.% Saffil fibres increase by about 25%, whereas at the highest applied test temperature of 300o C the improvement was almost 100%. Fibres by strengthening of the copper matrix and by transferring loads from the matrix reduce its plastic deformation and hinder the micro-crack developed during bending tests. Decreasing of thermal and electrical conductivity of Cu after incorporating fibres in the matrix are relatively small and these properties can be acceptable for electric and thermal applications.
Nil strength temperature of 1062°C and nil ductility temperature of 1040°C were experimentally set for CuFe2 alloy. The highest formability at approx. 1020°C is unusable due to massive grain coarsening. The local minimum of ductility around the temperature 910°C is probably due to minor formation of γ-iron. In the forming temperatures interval 650-950°C and strain rate 0.1-10 s–1 the flow stress curves were obtained and after their analysis hot deformation activation energy of 380 kJ·mol–1 was achieved. Peak stress and corresponding peak strain values were mathematically described with good accuracy by equations depending on Zener-Hollomon parameter.
The post-processing slags containing about 0.8 wt.% of copper were subjected to the treatment of a complex reagent. The chemical composition of the complex reagent has been elaborated and patented in frame of the Grant No. PBS3/A5/45/2015. The slags had an industrial origin and were delivered by the Smelter and Refinery Plant, Głogów, as a product of the direct-to-blister technology performed in the flash furnace assisted by the arc furnace. An agglomeration of copper droplets suspended in the liquid slag, their coagulation, and deposition on the bottom of furnace were observed after the treatment this post-processing slag by the mentioned reagent. The treatment of the post-processing slags by the complex reagent was performed in the arc furnace equipped with some additional electrodes situated at the furnace bottom (additional, in comparison with the arc furnace usually applied in the Smelter and Refinery Plant, Głogów). The behaviour of the copper droplets in the liquid slag within the competition between buoyancy force and gravity was studied from the viewpoint of the required deposition of coagulated copper droplets. The applied complex reagent improves sufficiently the surface free energy of the copper droplets. In the result, the mechanical equilibrium between coagulated copper droplets and surrounding liquid slag is properly modified. Eventually, sufficiently large copper droplets are subjected to a settlement on the furnace bottom according to the requirements. The agglomeration and coagulation of the copper droplets were significantly improved by an optimized tilting of the upper electrodes and even by their rotation. Moreover, the settlement was substantially facilitated and improved by the employment of both upper and lower system of electrodes with the simultaneous substitution of the variable current by the direct current.
In this research, the high arsenic content dust of copper smelting, as a raw material, the extraction of copper and arsenic from the high arsenic content dust in the leaching system containing acidic and alkaline compounds was investigated. Meanwhile, the effects of acid/alkaline initial concentration, liquid to solid ratio, leaching temperature, leaching time on the leaching rate of copper and arsenic were studied. The optimum conditions for the leaching of high arsenic content dust and preparation of copper arsenate were determined. The results showed that acidic/alkaline leaching of high arsenic content dust was particularly effective. 93.2% of the copper, and 91.6% of the arsenic were leached in an acidic leaching process and 95% of the arsenic, while less than 3% of the copper, less than 5% of the antimony, less than 2% of the bismuth was also leached in an alkaline leaching process. A new method (the parallel flow drop precipitate method) was developed in the synthesis of copper arsenate process. The parallel flow drop method was employed to adjust the molar ratio (copper to arsenic) of the mixed solution of the acid-leaching solution and the alkali-leaching solution by taking the drop acceleration of an acidic leaching solution and an alkaline leaching solution at 10 mL/min and 12 mL/min, at a temperature of 60°C and a reaction time of 1 h. Copper arsenate was prepared by mixing an acidic leaching solution and an alkaline leaching solution. The main phases of copper arsenate were CuHAsO4·1.5H2O and Cu5As4O15·9H2O. Copper arsenate contained 30.13% copper and 31.10% arsenic.