This paper presents the optimal sizing of PV/Wind/Fuel Cell/Battery Hybrid Energy System for energizing a Small Scale Industrial Application or a village domestic load of 200 kW. HOMER software is used for simulation of the complete system. The solar radiation data and wind speed data used in this paper are for the place of Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India which is located 11.0183° N longitude and 76.9725° E latitude. The optimized sizes of components of Hybrid Power System (HPS) are found based on Levelised Cost of Energy (LCE) and total Net Present Cost (NPC). The results are presented and compared for five different combinations of HPS components. Suggestions are also presented to choose the low cost system which produces energy at low LCE.
An overview of the important techniques for detection of optical radiation from the ultraviolet, through visible to infrared spectral regions is presented. At the beginning single-point devices are considered. Next, di.erent application circuits used in direct detection systems together with elucidation of the design of front-end circuits and discussion of their performance are presented. Third part of the paper is devoted to advanced techniques including coherent detection. Finally, the updated information devoted to readout of signals from detector arrays and focal plane arrays is included. It is shown that detector focal plane technology has revolutionized many kinds of imaging in the past 25 years.
Many parts of remote locations in the world are not electrified even in this Advanced Technology Era. To provide electricity in such remote places renewable hybrid energy systems are very much suitable. In this paper PV/Wind/Battery Hybrid Power System (HPS) is considered to provide an economical and sustainable power to a remote load. HPS can supply the maximum power to the load at a particular operating point which is generally called as Maximum Power Point (MPP). Fuzzy Logic based MPPT (FLMPPT) control method has been implemented for both Solar and Wind Power Systems. FLMPPT control technique is implemented to generate the optimal reference voltage for the first stage of DC-DC Boost converter in both the PV and Wind energy system. The HPS is tested with variable solar irradiation, temperature, and wind speed. The FLMPPT method is compared with P&O MPPT method. The proposed method provides a good maximum power operation of the hybrid system at all operating conditions. In order to combine both sources, the DC bus voltage is made constant by employing PI Controllers for the second stage of DC-DC Buck-Boost converter in both Solar and Wind Power Systems. Battery Bank is used to store excess power from Renewable Energy Sources (RES) and to provide continuous power to load when the RES power is less than load power. A SPWM inverter is designed to convert DC power into AC to supply three phase load. An LC filter is also used at the output of inverter to get sinusoidal current from the PWM inverter. The entire system was modeled and simulated in Matlab/Simulink Environment. The results presented show the validation of the HPS design.