Based on the example of the development process of the cast suspension of a special-purpose vehicle the application of the integrated engineering design methodology (ICME – Integrated Computational Materials Engineering) and the development of construction has been presented. Identification of the operating and critical loads, which are guidelines for carrying out the structure strength shaping process, material and technological conversion, are due to the needs and requirements of the suspension system and the purpose and objectives of the special mobile platform. The developed cast suspension element construction includes the use of high-strength AlZnMgCu aluminum alloy. The properties of the used alloy and designed shape allows for the transfer of assumed operating loads in normal exploitation conditions and in the dynamic, critical loads to the susceptibility to damage in the assumed casting areas. For the proposed design, conducted numerical analyzes includes the impact of the shock wave pulse on the occurrence of the destructive stress fields. Based on their distribution, the areas of possible decomposition of the structure of the design element were estimated. The results allowed to devise an element with predicted destructions that allow to absorb a significant part of the impact energy of the shock wave front, which is also the buffer zone for the propagation of destruction for the critical kinematic nodes of the system.
Aluminium alloys are one of the preferred materials especially for land and air transportation because of their high strength and lowdensity properties. Although production using casting method is economical yet it has some disadvantages. Shrinkage which is occurred due to the density difference between the solid and liquid metal is prevented by feeders which need to be calculated. Liquid metal should be transferred to the mould without any turbulence. As a result, sprues are needed to be designed precisely. On the other hand, aluminium alloys can also be shaped by forging at semi-solid temperatures. There are some advantages compared to the traditional forging methods of improving die life due to the lower tonnage values. In this study, semi-solid produced 7075 aluminium alloy die filling capabilities were investigated. To achieve semisolid structure strain induced melt activated method (SIMA) was used. The desired structure was achieved at 635 °C and 30 minutes of duration of heat treatment. After determining the optimum parameters, metallographic analysis, density calculations, porosity distribution and tensile tests were carried out. It was found that the reproducibility of SIMA produced 7075 alloy was quite low. A proper tensile test result was achieved only 7 of the total 15 tests and the mean value was 386 MPa. The main reason for this scattered in mechanical properties could be the chemical composition of the alloy and the rapid solidification of the liquid eutectic phases. It is important to define the best fitting process parameters and controlling them precisely will be the most important factors for future studies.
Silicon bronzes are characterised by good mechanical properties and by high corrosion and mechanical wear resistance. The process of sleeve casting by means of the centrifugal casting with the horizontal axis of the mould rotation was analysed. The assessment of the influence of modification and centrifugal casting parameters on the microstructure and mechanical properties of alloys was carried out in the hereby work. Zirconium was applied as a modifier. Speed of rotation of the mould was the variable parameter of the centrifugal casting. The investigation results were summarised on the basis of the microstructure analysis and mechanical properties determination: UTS, proof stress, A10 and BHN. The experiment aimed at finding the information in which way the modification together with changing the pouring parameters influence the mechanical properties of the CuSi3Zn3FeMn alloy.
The influence of the chill on the AlSi7Mg alloy properties after the heat treatment T6, was realised in the system of the horizontally cast plate of dimensions 160x240 mm and thickness of 10 and 15 m. The cooling course in individual casting zones was recorded, which allowed to determine the solidification rate. Castings were subjected to the heat treatment T6 process. Several properties of the alloy such as: hardness BHN, density, tensile strength UTS, elongation %E were determined. The microstructure images were presented and the structural SDAS parameter determined. The performed investigations as well as the analysis of the results allowed to determine the influence zone of the chill. The research shows that there is a certain dependence between the thickness of the casting wall and the influence zone of the chill, being not less than 2g, where g is the casting wall thickness. The next aim of successive investigations will be finding the confirmation that there is the dependence between the casting wall thickness and the influence zone of the chill for other thicknesses of walls. We would like to prove that this principle is of a universal character.
The paper presents influence of soaking parameters (temperature and time) on structure and mechanical properties of spheroidal graphite nickel-manganese-copper cast iron, containing: 7.2% Ni, 2.6% Mn and 2.4% Cu. Raw castings showed austenitic structure and relatively low hardness (150 HBW) guaranteeing their good machinability. Heat treatment consisted in soaking the castings within 400 to 600°C for 2 to 10 hours followed by air-cooling. In most cases, soaking caused changes in structure and, in consequence, an increase of hardness in comparison to raw castings. The highest hardness and tensile strength was obtained after soaking at 550°C for 6 hours. At the same time, decrease of the parameters related to plasticity of cast iron (elongation and impact strength) was observed. This resulted from the fact that, in these conditions, the largest fraction of fine-acicular ferrite with relatively high hardness (490 HV0.1) was created in the matrix. At lower temperatures and after shorter soaking times, hardness and tensile strength were lower because of smaller degree of austenite transformation. At higher temperatures and after longer soaking times, fine-dispersive ferrite was produced. That resulted in slightly lower material hardness.
The object of the experimental studies was to determine the mechanical properties of a hypoeutectic EN AC - 42100 (EN ACAlSi7Mg0,3) silumin alloy, where the said properties are changing as a result of subjecting the samples of different types to solution treatment. An important aspect of the studies was the use type of device for the heat treatment. As a basic parameter representing the mechanical properties, the tensile strength of the metal (Rm) was adopted.
The paper presents the results of the application of a statistical analysis to evaluate the effect of the chemical composition of the die casting Al-Si alloys on its basic mechanical properties. The examinations were performed on the hypoeutectic Al-Si alloy type EN AC-46000 and, created on its basis, a multi-component Al-Si alloy containing high-melting additions Cr, Mo, W and V. The additions were introduced into the base Al-Si alloy in different combinations and amounts (from 0,05% to 0,50%). The tensile strength Rm; the proof stress Rp0,2; the unit elongation A and the hardness HB of the examined Al-Si alloys were determined. The data analysis and the selection of Al-Si alloy samples without the Cr, Mo, W and V additions were presented; a database containing the independent variables (Al-Si alloy's chemical composition) and dependent variables (Rm; Rp0,2; A and HB) for all the considered variants of Al-Si alloy composition was constructed. Additionally, an analysis was made of the effect of the Al-Si alloy's component elements on the obtained mechanical properties, with a special consideration of the high-melting additions Cr, Mo, V and W. For the optimization of the content of these additions in the Al-Si alloy, the dependent variables were standardized and treated jointly. The statistical tools were mainly the multivariate backward stepwise regression and linear correlation analysis and the analysis of variance ANOVA. The statistical analysis showed that the most advantageous effect on the jointly treated mechanical properties is obtained with the amount of the Cr, Mo, V and W additions of 0,05 to 0,10%.
The work is a continuation of research on the use of water mist cooling in order to increase efficiency of the die-casting process for aluminum alloys. The paper describes the multipoint sequential cooling system of the casting die and its computer control and monitoring. It also includes results of the tests and analysis of cooling methods during making of the casting. These methods differ from each other in the sequence of casting die cooling and cause effective changes in microstructure and mechanical properties of castings made of AlSi11 alloy. The study demonstrated that the use of multipoint sequential cooling with water mist affects the microstructure refinement and reduces the segregation in the cast as well as more than by 20% increases the mechanical properties of castings in the rough state. The study also demonstrates that the sequential cooling of casting die accelerates the cooling of the casting and shortens die-casting cycle.
High-chromium cast irons are used as abrasion resistant materials. Their wear resistance depends on quantity of carbides and the matrix supporting these carbides. The paper presents the results of cast irons of chemical composition (in wt. %) 19–22 Cr and 2–4.5 C alloyed by 1.7 Mo + 5 Ni + 2 Mn to improve their toughness, which were tested in working conditions of ferroalloys crushing. Tests showed that these as-cast chromium cast irons with mostly austenitic matrix achieved the hardness of 38-45 HRC, but their relative abrasion resistance Ψ ranged from 1.3 to 4.6, was higher comparing to the tool made from the X210Cr12 steel heat treated on hardness 61 HRC. The transformation of austenite into martensite occurs not only at the worn strained areas (on a surface of scratch) but also in their neighbourhood. Due to the work hardening of relatively large volumes of transformed austenite the cast iron possesses high abrasion resistance also on the surfaces where low pressures are acting. The tough abrasion-resistant cast iron well proved for production of dynamic and wear stressed castings e.g., crusher hammers, cutting tools for ceramic etc.
Purpose: The influence of age-hardening solution treatment at temperature 515 degrees centigrade with holding time 4 hours, water quenching at 40 degrees centigrade and artificial aging by different temperature 130, 150, 170 and 210 degrees centigrade with different holding time 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 hours on changes in morphology of Fe-rich Al15(FeMn)3Si2and Cu-rich (Al2Cu, Al-Al2Cu-Si) intermetallic phases in recycled AlSi9Cu3 cast alloy. Material/Methods: Recycled (secondary) AlSi9Cu3 cast alloy is used especially in automotive industry (dynamic exposed cast, engine parts, cylinder heads, pistons and so on). Microstructure was observed using a combination of different analytical techniques (scanning electron microscopy upon standard and deep etching and energy dispersive X-ray analysis – EDX) which have been used for the identification of the various phases. Quantitative study of changes in morphology of phases was carried out using Image Analyzer software NIS-Elements. The mechanical properties (Brinell hardness and tensile strength) were measured in line with STN EN ISO. Results/Conclusion: Age-hardening led to changes in microstructure include the spheroidization of eutectic silicon, gradual disintegration, shortening and thinning of Fe-rich intermetallic phases and Al-Al2Cu-Si phases were fragmented, dissolved and redistributed within alpha-matrix. These changes led to increase in the hardness and tensile strength in the alloy.
A cold roll-bonding process was applied to fabricate an AA1050/AA6061/AA1050 multi-layer sheet. Three Al sheets in which an AA6061 sheet is inserted inside two AA1050 sheets of 2 mm thickness, 40 mm width and 300 mm length were stacked up after surface treatment, and the material was then reduced to a thickness of 1.0 mm by multi-pass cold rolling. The AA1050/AA6061/ AA1050 laminate complex sheet fabricated by roll bonding was then hardened by a natural aging (T4) and an artificial aging (T6) treatments. The microstructures of the as-roll bonded and the age-hardened Al complex sheets were revealed by optical microscope and electron back scatter diffraction analysis, and the mechanical properties were investigated by tensile and hardness testing. The strength of the as-roll bonded complex sheet was found to increase by 2.6 times, compared to that value of the starting material. Both AA1050 and AA6061 showed a typical recrystallization structure in which the grains were equiaxed after heat treatment. However, the grain size was smaller in AA6061 than in AA1050.
In the paper the reasons for steam pipeline’s elbow material rupture, made of steel 13CrMo4-5 (15HM) that is being used in the energetics. Based on the mechanical properties in the ambient temperature (Rm, Rp0,2 and elongation A5) and in the increased temperature (Rp0,2t ) it was found, that the pipeline elbow’s material sampled from the ruptured area has lower Rp0,2 i Rp0,2t by around 2% than it is a requirement for 13CrMo4-5 steel in it’s base state. The damage appeared as a result of complex stress state, that substantially exceeded the admissible tensions, what was the consequence of considerable structure degradation level. As a result of the microstructure tests on HITACHI S4200 microscope, the considerable development of the creeping process associates were found. Also the advances progress of the microstructure degradation was observed, which is substantial decomposition of bainite and multiple, with varied secretion size, and in most cases forming the micro cracks chains. With the use of lateral micro sections the creeping voids were observed, that creates at some places the shrinkage porosities clusters and micro pores.
The results of studies on the use of modern two cored wires injection method for production of nodular graphite cast iron with use of unique implementation of drum ladle as a treatment/ transport and casting ladle instead vertical treatment ladle was described. The injection of length of Ø 9mm wires, cored: in FeSi + Mg nodulariser mixture and inoculant master alloy is a treatment method which can be used to produce iron melted in coreless induction furnace. This paper describes the results of using this method for possibility production of ductile iron under specific industrial conditions. In this case was taken ductile iron with material designation: EN-GJS-450- 10 Grade according PN-EN 1563:2000. Microstructure of 28 trials was controlled on internally used sample which has been correlated with standard sample before. The paper presents typical metallic matrix and graphite characteristic. Additionally, mechanical properties were checked in one experiment. Because of further possibility treatment temperature reduction only the rough magnesium recovery and cost of this new method are given.
The impact of casting conditions on microstructure a and mechanical properties was described, especially for cast products from AlSi9Cu3 alloy. Particular attention was paid to the parameters of dendritic structure: DAS 1 and DAS 2. Selected mechanical properties (by static tension test) of test castings made using basic technologies of casting: GSC - gravity sand casting, GDC - gravity die-casting and HPDC - high-pressure die-casting, are presented for cast-on test bars and cast separately. Casts were made of the same alloy AlSi9Cu3. Fractures and the zone near the fracture (after static tension test) was subjected to VT - visual tests, PT - penetration tests and metallographic tests. The condition of porosity (fracture zone) was also assessed. The analysis of virtual results was performed using the NovaFlow & Solid system together with the database and they were compared to experimental tests. This way of validation was applied in order to assess the correlation between the local rate of cooling and the size of DAS for GSC, GDC and HPDC technologies. Finally, the correlation between the parameters of structure and mechanical properties with regard to the impact of porosity was signalized.
The results of studies on the use of modern two cored wires injection method for production of ferritic nodular cast iron (ductile iron) with use of unique implementation of drum ladle as a treatment / transport and casting ladle instead vertical treatment ladle was described. The injection of length of Ø 9mm wires, cored: in FeSi + Mg nodulariser mixture and inoculant master alloy is a treatment method which can be used to produce iron melted in coreless induction furnace. This paper describes the results and analysis of using this method for optimal production of ductile iron under specific industrial conditions. It means, that length of nodulariser wire plus treatment and pouring temperatures were optimized. In this case, was taken ductile iron with material designation: EN-GJS-SiMo40-6 Grade according EN 16124:2010 E. Microstructure of great number of trials was controlled on internally used sample which has been correlated with standard sample before. The paper presents typical ferritic metallic matrix and nodular graphite. Additionally, mechanical properties were checked in some experiments. Mean values of magnesium recovery and cost of this new method from optimized process parameters were calculated as well.