Search results

Filters

  • Journals
  • Authors
  • Keywords
  • Date
  • Type

Search results

Number of results: 250
items per page: 25 50 75
Sort by:

Abstract

Currently there is a constant development in the field of aluminium alloys engineering. This results from, i.a., better understanding of the mechanisms that direct strengthening of these alloys and the role of microalloying. Now it is microalloying in aluminum alloys that is receiving a lot of attention. It affects substantially the macro- and microstructure and kinetics of phase transformation influencing the properties during production and its exploitation. 7xxx series aluminum alloys, based on the Al-Zn-Mg-Cu system, are high-strength alloys, moreover, the presence of Zr and Sr further increases their strength and improves resistance to cracking. This study aims to present the changes of the properties, depending on the alloy chemical composition and the macro- and microstructure. Therefore, the characteristics in the field of hardness, tensile strength, yield strength and elongation are shown on selected examples. Observations were made on ingot samples obtained by semi-continuous casting, in the homogenized state. Samples were prepared from aluminum alloys in accordance with PN-EN 573-3: 2013. The advantage of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys are undoubtedly good strength, Light-weight and resistance to corrosion. As widening of the already published studies it is sought to demonstrate the repeatability of the physical parameters in the whole volume of the sample.
Go to article

Abstract

The paper presents results of measuring attenuation coefficient of the Al-20 wt.% Zn alloy (AlZn20) inoculated with different grain refiners. During experiments the melted alloys were doped with Al-Ti3-C0.15 refining master alloy. Basing on measurements performed by Krautkramer USLT2000 device with 1MHz ultrasound wave frequency it was stated that grain refinement reduces the attenuation coefficient by about 20-25%. However, the examined alloys can be still classified as the high-damping ones of attenuation greater than 150 dB/m.
Go to article

Abstract

The influence of the chill on the AlSi7Mg alloy properties after the heat treatment T6, was realised in the system of the horizontally cast plate of dimensions 160x240 mm and thickness of 10 and 15 m. The cooling course in individual casting zones was recorded, which allowed to determine the solidification rate. Castings were subjected to the heat treatment T6 process. Several properties of the alloy such as: hardness BHN, density, tensile strength UTS, elongation %E were determined. The microstructure images were presented and the structural SDAS parameter determined. The performed investigations as well as the analysis of the results allowed to determine the influence zone of the chill. The research shows that there is a certain dependence between the thickness of the casting wall and the influence zone of the chill, being not less than 2g, where g is the casting wall thickness. The next aim of successive investigations will be finding the confirmation that there is the dependence between the casting wall thickness and the influence zone of the chill for other thicknesses of walls. We would like to prove that this principle is of a universal character.
Go to article

Abstract

The paper presents influence of soaking parameters (temperature and time) on structure and mechanical properties of spheroidal graphite nickel-manganese-copper cast iron, containing: 7.2% Ni, 2.6% Mn and 2.4% Cu. Raw castings showed austenitic structure and relatively low hardness (150 HBW) guaranteeing their good machinability. Heat treatment consisted in soaking the castings within 400 to 600°C for 2 to 10 hours followed by air-cooling. In most cases, soaking caused changes in structure and, in consequence, an increase of hardness in comparison to raw castings. The highest hardness and tensile strength was obtained after soaking at 550°C for 6 hours. At the same time, decrease of the parameters related to plasticity of cast iron (elongation and impact strength) was observed. This resulted from the fact that, in these conditions, the largest fraction of fine-acicular ferrite with relatively high hardness (490 HV0.1) was created in the matrix. At lower temperatures and after shorter soaking times, hardness and tensile strength were lower because of smaller degree of austenite transformation. At higher temperatures and after longer soaking times, fine-dispersive ferrite was produced. That resulted in slightly lower material hardness.
Go to article

Abstract

The object of the experimental studies was to determine the mechanical properties of a hypoeutectic EN AC - 42100 (EN ACAlSi7Mg0,3) silumin alloy, where the said properties are changing as a result of subjecting the samples of different types to solution treatment. An important aspect of the studies was the use type of device for the heat treatment. As a basic parameter representing the mechanical properties, the tensile strength of the metal (Rm) was adopted.
Go to article

Abstract

The article presents the investigation results of the crystallization (performed by means of the TDA method) and the microstructure of complex aluminium bronzes with the content of 6% Al, 4% Fe and 4% Ni, as well as Si additions in the scope of 1–2% and Cr additions in the scope of 0.1–0.3%, which have not been simultaneously applied before. For the examined bronze, the following tests were performed: hardness HB, impact strength (KU2). For bronze CuAl6Fe4Ni4Si2Cr0.3, characterizing in the highest hardness, wear tests were conducted with dry friction and the dry friction coefficient. The investigations carried out by means of the X-ray phase analysis demonstrated the following phases in the microstructure of this bronze: αCu, γ2 and complex intermetallic phases based on iron silicide type Fe3Si (M3Si M={Fe,Cr,…}). Compared to the normalized aluminium bronzes (μ=0.18–0.23), the examined bronze characterizes in relatively low wear and lower friction coefficient during dry friction (μ=0.147±0.016).
Go to article

Abstract

The paper presents the results of the application of a statistical analysis to evaluate the effect of the chemical composition of the die casting Al-Si alloys on its basic mechanical properties. The examinations were performed on the hypoeutectic Al-Si alloy type EN AC-46000 and, created on its basis, a multi-component Al-Si alloy containing high-melting additions Cr, Mo, W and V. The additions were introduced into the base Al-Si alloy in different combinations and amounts (from 0,05% to 0,50%). The tensile strength Rm; the proof stress Rp0,2; the unit elongation A and the hardness HB of the examined Al-Si alloys were determined. The data analysis and the selection of Al-Si alloy samples without the Cr, Mo, W and V additions were presented; a database containing the independent variables (Al-Si alloy's chemical composition) and dependent variables (Rm; Rp0,2; A and HB) for all the considered variants of Al-Si alloy composition was constructed. Additionally, an analysis was made of the effect of the Al-Si alloy's component elements on the obtained mechanical properties, with a special consideration of the high-melting additions Cr, Mo, V and W. For the optimization of the content of these additions in the Al-Si alloy, the dependent variables were standardized and treated jointly. The statistical tools were mainly the multivariate backward stepwise regression and linear correlation analysis and the analysis of variance ANOVA. The statistical analysis showed that the most advantageous effect on the jointly treated mechanical properties is obtained with the amount of the Cr, Mo, V and W additions of 0,05 to 0,10%.
Go to article

Abstract

The work is a continuation of research on the use of water mist cooling in order to increase efficiency of the die-casting process for aluminum alloys. The paper describes the multipoint sequential cooling system of the casting die and its computer control and monitoring. It also includes results of the tests and analysis of cooling methods during making of the casting. These methods differ from each other in the sequence of casting die cooling and cause effective changes in microstructure and mechanical properties of castings made of AlSi11 alloy. The study demonstrated that the use of multipoint sequential cooling with water mist affects the microstructure refinement and reduces the segregation in the cast as well as more than by 20% increases the mechanical properties of castings in the rough state. The study also demonstrates that the sequential cooling of casting die accelerates the cooling of the casting and shortens die-casting cycle.
Go to article

Abstract

High-chromium cast irons are used as abrasion resistant materials. Their wear resistance depends on quantity of carbides and the matrix supporting these carbides. The paper presents the results of cast irons of chemical composition (in wt. %) 19–22 Cr and 2–4.5 C alloyed by 1.7 Mo + 5 Ni + 2 Mn to improve their toughness, which were tested in working conditions of ferroalloys crushing. Tests showed that these as-cast chromium cast irons with mostly austenitic matrix achieved the hardness of 38-45 HRC, but their relative abrasion resistance Ψ ranged from 1.3 to 4.6, was higher comparing to the tool made from the X210Cr12 steel heat treated on hardness 61 HRC. The transformation of austenite into martensite occurs not only at the worn strained areas (on a surface of scratch) but also in their neighbourhood. Due to the work hardening of relatively large volumes of transformed austenite the cast iron possesses high abrasion resistance also on the surfaces where low pressures are acting. The tough abrasion-resistant cast iron well proved for production of dynamic and wear stressed castings e.g., crusher hammers, cutting tools for ceramic etc.
Go to article

Abstract

In this study, a pilot-scale subsurface wastewater infiltration system (SWIS) was deployed to study landscape water treatment. The goal of the study was to investigate the effects of hydraulic loading on pollutant removal and the spatial distribution of biofilm properties in SWIS. Results showed that the efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) removal degraded as hydraulic loading increased. Furthermore, quantities of the biofilm properties parameter s increased with the hydraulic loading. Polysaccharide and protein levels ranged from 560 to 1110 μg/g filler and 60 to 190 μg/g filler, respectively, at a hydraulic loading of 0.2 m/d. At a hydraulic loading of 0.4 m/d, the quantities of polysaccharide and protein ranged from 1200 to 3300 μg/g filler and 80 to 290 μg/g filler, respectively. Biofilm intensity and biofilm activity per unit weight decreased with the increase in hydraulic loading.
Go to article

Abstract

The presented paper reports data from malacological and pedological studies carried out at sites representing diverse biotopes (beech wood, coniferous forest, and meadow) located 2 km away from the Dyckerhoff Cement Plant in Sitkówka-Nowiny in 1992 and in 2008–2009. The studies aimed to determine physicochemical properties of soils exposed to cement and limestone dust emission and to identify composition of snail communities inhabiting three different biotopes in relation to physicochemical properties of soils, and to grasp the dynamics of the alkalization-dependent changes in physicochemical properties of soils and their impact on the composition and ecological structure of malacofauna.
Go to article

Abstract

In this paper, thermally-excited, lateral free vibration analysis of a small-sized Euler-Bernoulli beam is studied based on the nonlocal theory. Nonlocal effect is exerted into analysis utilizing differential constitutive model of Eringen. This model is suitable for design of sensors and actuators in dimensions of micron and submicron. Sudden temperature rise conducted through the thickness direction of the beam causes thermal stresses and makes thermo-mechanical properties to vary. This temperature field is supposed to be constant in the lateral direction. Temperatures of the top and bottom surfaces of the system are considered to be equal to each other. Governing equation of motion is derived using Hamilton’s principle. Numerical analysis of the system is performed by Galerkin’s approach. For verification of the present results, comparison between the obtained results and those of benchmark is reported. Numerical results demonstrate that dynamic behavior of small-sized system is been effected by temperature shift, nonlocal parameter, and slenderness ratio. As a result, taking the mentioned parameters into account leads to better and more reliable design in miniaturized-based industries.
Go to article

Abstract

Thermal buckling behavior of a functionally graded material (FGM) Timoshenko beam is studied based on the transformed-section method. The material and thermal properties of the FGM beam are assumed to vary across the beam thickness according to a power-law function, a sigmoid function and an exponential function. The results of buckling temperature for the FGM beams with respective temperature-dependent and temperature-independent properties under uniform and non-linear temperature rises are presented. Some results are compared with those in the published literature to verify the accuracy of the present work. The effects of the material distributions, temperature fields, temperature-dependent properties and slenderness ratios on the thermal buckling behaviors of FGM beams are discussed. It is believed that the present model provides engineers with a simple and effective method to study the effects of various parameters of the FGM beam on its thermal buckling behavior.
Go to article

Abstract

Purpose: The influence of age-hardening solution treatment at temperature 515 degrees centigrade with holding time 4 hours, water quenching at 40 degrees centigrade and artificial aging by different temperature 130, 150, 170 and 210 degrees centigrade with different holding time 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 hours on changes in morphology of Fe-rich Al15(FeMn)3Si2and Cu-rich (Al2Cu, Al-Al2Cu-Si) intermetallic phases in recycled AlSi9Cu3 cast alloy. Material/Methods: Recycled (secondary) AlSi9Cu3 cast alloy is used especially in automotive industry (dynamic exposed cast, engine parts, cylinder heads, pistons and so on). Microstructure was observed using a combination of different analytical techniques (scanning electron microscopy upon standard and deep etching and energy dispersive X-ray analysis – EDX) which have been used for the identification of the various phases. Quantitative study of changes in morphology of phases was carried out using Image Analyzer software NIS-Elements. The mechanical properties (Brinell hardness and tensile strength) were measured in line with STN EN ISO. Results/Conclusion: Age-hardening led to changes in microstructure include the spheroidization of eutectic silicon, gradual disintegration, shortening and thinning of Fe-rich intermetallic phases and Al-Al2Cu-Si phases were fragmented, dissolved and redistributed within alpha-matrix. These changes led to increase in the hardness and tensile strength in the alloy.
Go to article

Abstract

In the paper the reasons for steam pipeline’s elbow material rupture, made of steel 13CrMo4-5 (15HM) that is being used in the energetics. Based on the mechanical properties in the ambient temperature (Rm, Rp0,2 and elongation A5) and in the increased temperature (Rp0,2t ) it was found, that the pipeline elbow’s material sampled from the ruptured area has lower Rp0,2 i Rp0,2t by around 2% than it is a requirement for 13CrMo4-5 steel in it’s base state. The damage appeared as a result of complex stress state, that substantially exceeded the admissible tensions, what was the consequence of considerable structure degradation level. As a result of the microstructure tests on HITACHI S4200 microscope, the considerable development of the creeping process associates were found. Also the advances progress of the microstructure degradation was observed, which is substantial decomposition of bainite and multiple, with varied secretion size, and in most cases forming the micro cracks chains. With the use of lateral micro sections the creeping voids were observed, that creates at some places the shrinkage porosities clusters and micro pores.
Go to article

Abstract

Railway buffers during the operation are staying in almost permanent contact with each other, creating friction node in the point of contact of two railway buffer heads. In consequence of overcoming track curves, turnouts and unevenness of track, the railway buffer heads moves relative to each other causing friction, which results in its wear. When the wear is excessive, it might be a reason to withdrawn vehicle from service, it causes flattening of buffer head, and in consequence its abnormal cooperation. To avoid this phenomenon the buffer heads should be covered with graphitized grease, but this method has many disadvantages. Accordingly, it was found that it would be beneficial to cover the buffer head with bronze using laser cladding. In this article the metallographic and mechanical analysis of the newly created top layer of railway buffer head are presented. In article the results from tribological tests conducted on Amsler test bench are also presented. Based on test results described in article concluded that the layer of bronze coat on working surface of railway buffer head can be beneficial from operational point of view.
Go to article

Abstract

A cold roll-bonding process was applied to fabricate an AA1050/AA6061/AA1050 multi-layer sheet. Three Al sheets in which an AA6061 sheet is inserted inside two AA1050 sheets of 2 mm thickness, 40 mm width and 300 mm length were stacked up after surface treatment, and the material was then reduced to a thickness of 1.0 mm by multi-pass cold rolling. The AA1050/AA6061/ AA1050 laminate complex sheet fabricated by roll bonding was then hardened by a natural aging (T4) and an artificial aging (T6) treatments. The microstructures of the as-roll bonded and the age-hardened Al complex sheets were revealed by optical microscope and electron back scatter diffraction analysis, and the mechanical properties were investigated by tensile and hardness testing. The strength of the as-roll bonded complex sheet was found to increase by 2.6 times, compared to that value of the starting material. Both AA1050 and AA6061 showed a typical recrystallization structure in which the grains were equiaxed after heat treatment. However, the grain size was smaller in AA6061 than in AA1050.
Go to article

Abstract

Small additions of Cr, Mo and W to aluminium-iron-nickel bronze are mostly located in phases κi (i=II; III; IV),and next in phase α (in the matrix) and phase γ2. They raise the temperature of the phase transformations in aluminium bronzes as well as the casts’ abrasive and adhesive wear resistance. The paper presents a selection of feeding elements and thermal treatment times which guarantees structure stability, for a cast of a massive bush working at an elevated temperature (650–750°C) made by means of the lost foam technology out of composite aluminium bronze. So far, there have been no analyses of the phenomena characteristic to the examined bronze which accompany the process of its solidification during gasification of the EPS pattern. There are also no guidelines for designing risers and steel internal chill for casts made of this bronze. The work identifies the type and location of the existing defects in the mould’s cast. It also proposes a solution to the manner of its feeding and cooling which compensates the significant volume contraction of bronze and effectively removes the formed gases from the area of mould solidification. Another important aspect of the performed research was establishing the duration time of bronze annealing at the temperature of 750°C which guarantees stabilization of the changes in the bronze microstructure – stabilization of the changes in the bronze HB hardness.
Go to article

Abstract

The dispersion of nanoparticles in the host matrix is a novel approach to enhance the thermoelectric performance. In this work, we incorporate the TiC (x = 0, 1 and 2 wt.%) nanoparticles into a p-type Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 matrix, and their effects on microstructure and thermoelectric properties were systematically investigated. The existence of TiC contents in a base matrix was confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis. The grain size decreases with increasing the addition of TiC content due to grain boundary hardening where the dispersed nanoparticles acted as pinning points in the entire matrix. The electrical conductivity significantly decreased and the Seebeck coefficient was slightly enhanced, which attributes to the decrease in carrier concentration by the addition of TiC content. Meanwhile, the lowest thermal conductivity of 0.97 W/mK for the 2 wt.% TiC nanocomposite sample, which is ~16% lower than 0 wt.% TiC sample. The maximum figure of merit of 0.90 was obtained at 350 K for the 0 wt.% TiC sample due to high electrical conductivity. Moreover, the Vickers hardness was improved with increase the addition of TiC contents.
Go to article

Abstract

Along with the increase in popularity of the sewage sludge thermal treatment methods in Poland resulting from the implementation of European Union law, a management problem with ash, which is produced as a result of this process, appeared. The paper analyses the chemical composition and physical properties of fl y ash from thermal treatment of municipal sewage sludge in terms of its use in concrete technologies in relation to EN 450-1 Fly ash for concrete. Defi nition, specifi cations and conformity criteria (2012) and EN 197-1 Cement. Composition, specifi cations and conformity criteria for common cements (2011) standards. The tested material did not meet the requirements related to use of fl y ash for concrete production (chemical composition, low activity index, high water demand and fi neness), and as main and minor components for cement production. On the basis of the carried out research and analyses, it was found that the hardening slurry technology creates the greatest possibilities related to the management of fl y ash from thermal treatment of municipal sewage sludge.
Go to article

Abstract

There were two aims of the research. One was to enable more or less automatic confirmation of the known associations – either quantitative or qualitative – between technological data and selected properties of concrete materials. Even more important is the second aim – demonstration of expected possibility of automatic identification of new such relationships, not yet recognized by civil engineers. The relationships are to be obtained by methods of Artificial Intelligence, (AI), and are to be based on actual results from experiments on concrete materials. The reason of applying the AI tools is that in Civil Engineering the real data are typically non perfect, complex, fuzzy, often with missing details, which means that their analysis in a traditional way, by building empirical models, is hardly possible or at least can not be done quickly. The main idea of the proposed approach was to combine application of different AI methods in a one system, aimed at estimation, prediction, design and/or optimization of composite materials. The paradigm of the approach is that the unknown rules concerning the properties of concrete are hidden in experimental results and can be obtained from the analysis of examples. Different AI techniques like artificial neural networks, machine learning and certain techniques related to statistics were applied. The data for the analysis originated from direct observations and from reports and publications on concrete technology. Among others it has been demonstrated that by combining different AI methods it is possible to improve the quality of the data, (e.g. when encountering outliers and missing values or in clustering problems), so that the whole data processing system will be giving better prediction, (when applying ANNs), or the newly discovered rules will be more effective, (e.g. with descriptions more complete and – at the same time – possibly more consistent, in case of ML algorithms).
Go to article

Abstract

The results of studies on the use of modern two cored wires injection method for production of nodular graphite cast iron with use of unique implementation of drum ladle as a treatment/ transport and casting ladle instead vertical treatment ladle was described. The injection of length of Ø 9mm wires, cored: in FeSi + Mg nodulariser mixture and inoculant master alloy is a treatment method which can be used to produce iron melted in coreless induction furnace. This paper describes the results of using this method for possibility production of ductile iron under specific industrial conditions. In this case was taken ductile iron with material designation: EN-GJS-450- 10 Grade according PN-EN 1563:2000. Microstructure of 28 trials was controlled on internally used sample which has been correlated with standard sample before. The paper presents typical metallic matrix and graphite characteristic. Additionally, mechanical properties were checked in one experiment. Because of further possibility treatment temperature reduction only the rough magnesium recovery and cost of this new method are given.
Go to article

Abstract

The impact of casting conditions on microstructure a and mechanical properties was described, especially for cast products from AlSi9Cu3 alloy. Particular attention was paid to the parameters of dendritic structure: DAS 1 and DAS 2. Selected mechanical properties (by static tension test) of test castings made using basic technologies of casting: GSC - gravity sand casting, GDC - gravity die-casting and HPDC - high-pressure die-casting, are presented for cast-on test bars and cast separately. Casts were made of the same alloy AlSi9Cu3. Fractures and the zone near the fracture (after static tension test) was subjected to VT - visual tests, PT - penetration tests and metallographic tests. The condition of porosity (fracture zone) was also assessed. The analysis of virtual results was performed using the NovaFlow & Solid system together with the database and they were compared to experimental tests. This way of validation was applied in order to assess the correlation between the local rate of cooling and the size of DAS for GSC, GDC and HPDC technologies. Finally, the correlation between the parameters of structure and mechanical properties with regard to the impact of porosity was signalized.
Go to article

Abstract

The results of studies on the use of modern two cored wires injection method for production of ferritic nodular cast iron (ductile iron) with use of unique implementation of drum ladle as a treatment / transport and casting ladle instead vertical treatment ladle was described. The injection of length of Ø 9mm wires, cored: in FeSi + Mg nodulariser mixture and inoculant master alloy is a treatment method which can be used to produce iron melted in coreless induction furnace. This paper describes the results and analysis of using this method for optimal production of ductile iron under specific industrial conditions. It means, that length of nodulariser wire plus treatment and pouring temperatures were optimized. In this case, was taken ductile iron with material designation: EN-GJS-SiMo40-6 Grade according EN 16124:2010 E. Microstructure of great number of trials was controlled on internally used sample which has been correlated with standard sample before. The paper presents typical ferritic metallic matrix and nodular graphite. Additionally, mechanical properties were checked in some experiments. Mean values of magnesium recovery and cost of this new method from optimized process parameters were calculated as well.
Go to article

This page uses 'cookies'. Learn more