Antarctica is perceived as one of the most pristine environments on Earth, though increasing human activities and global climate change raise concerns about preserving the continent’s environmental quality. Limited in distribution, soils are particularly vulnerable to disturbances and pollution, yet lack of baseline studies limits our abilities to recognize and monitor adverse effects of environmental change. To improve the understanding of natural geochemical variability of soils, a survey was conducted in the fellfield environments of Edmonson Point (Victoria Land). Soil samples were analyzed for six major (Fe, Ca, Mg, Na, K and Ti) and 24 trace elements (As, Ba, Be, Bi, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Ga, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sn, Sr, Tl, U, V, Y, Zn and Zr). Relationships among element concentrations in the samples and local bedrock were analyzed to identify their origin and similarities in geochemical cycles. Element concentrations in the soils were highly variable but generally within the lowest values reported elsewhere in Antarctica. Though values of Cd, Mn, Ni and Zn were relatively high, they are consistent with those in the local soil-forming rocks indicating an origin from natural sources rather than anthropogenic contamination. Chemical composition of soils vs. rocks pointed to alkali basalts as the lithogenic source of the soil matrix, but also indicated considerable alteration of elemental composition in the soil. Considering local environmental settings, the soil elemental content was likely affected by marine-derived inputs and very active hydrological processes which enhanced leaching and removal of mobilized elements. Both of these processes may be of particular importance within the context of global climate change as the predicted increases in temperature, water availability and length of the summer season would favor mineral weathering and increase geochemical mobility of elements.
A cold roll-bonding process was applied to fabricate an AA1050/AA6061/AA1050 multi-layer sheet. Three Al sheets in which an AA6061 sheet is inserted inside two AA1050 sheets of 2 mm thickness, 40 mm width and 300 mm length were stacked up after surface treatment, and the material was then reduced to a thickness of 1.0 mm by multi-pass cold rolling. The AA1050/AA6061/ AA1050 laminate complex sheet fabricated by roll bonding was then hardened by a natural aging (T4) and an artificial aging (T6) treatments. The microstructures of the as-roll bonded and the age-hardened Al complex sheets were revealed by optical microscope and electron back scatter diffraction analysis, and the mechanical properties were investigated by tensile and hardness testing. The strength of the as-roll bonded complex sheet was found to increase by 2.6 times, compared to that value of the starting material. Both AA1050 and AA6061 showed a typical recrystallization structure in which the grains were equiaxed after heat treatment. However, the grain size was smaller in AA6061 than in AA1050.
Beamforming is an advanced signal processing technique used in sensor arrays for directional signal transmission or reception. The paper deals with a system based on an ultrasound transmitter and an array of receivers, to determine the distance to an obstacle by measuring the time of flight and – using the phase beamforming technique to process the output signals of receivers for finding the direction from which the reflected signal is received – locates the obstacle. The embedded beam-former interacts with a PID-based line follower robot to improve performance of the line follower navigation algorithm by detecting and avoiding obstacles. The PID (proportional-integral-derivative) algorithm is also typically used to control industrial processes. It calculates the difference between a measured value and a desired set of points, then attempts to minimize the error by adjusting the output. The overall navigation system combines a PID-based trajectory follower with a spatial-temporal filter (beamformer) that uses the output of an array of sensors to extract signals received from an obstacle in a particular direction in order to guide an autonomous vehicle or a robot along a safe path.
Real-time monitoring of deformation of large structure parts is of great significance and the deformation of such structure parts is often accompanied with the change of curvature. The curvature can be obtained by measuring changes of strain, surface curve and modal displacement of the structure. However, many factors are faced with difficulty in measurement and low sensitivity at a small deformation level. In order to measure curvature in an effective way, a novel fibre Bragg grating (FBG) curvature sensor is proposed, which aims at removing the deficiencies of traditional methods in low precision and narrow adjusting. The sensor combines two FBGs with a specific structure of stainless steel elastomer. The elastomer can transfer the strain of the structure part to the FBG and then the FBG measures the strain to obtain the curvature. The performed simulation and experiment show that the sensor can effectively amplify the strain to the FBG through the unique structure of the elastomer, and the accuracy of the sensor used in the experiment is increased by 14% compared with that of the FBG used for direct measurement.
Conventionally, the filtering technique for attitude estimation is performed using gyros or attitude dynamics models. In order to extend the application range of an attitude filter, this paper proposes a quaternionbased filtering framework for gyroless attitude estimation without an attitude dynamics model. The attitude estimation system is established based on a quaternion kinematic equation and vector observation models. The angular velocity in the system is determined through observation vectors from attitude sensors and the statistical properties of the angular velocity error are analysed. A Kalman filter is applied to estimate the attitude error such that the effect from the angular velocity error is compensated with its statistical properties at each sampling moment. A numerical simulation example is presented to illustrate the performance of the proposed algorithm.
The three-dimensional (3D) coordinate measurement of radio frequency identification (RFID) multi-tag networks is one of the important issues in the field of RFID, which affects the reading performance of RFID multi-tag networks. In this paper, a novel method for 3D coordinate measurement of RFID multitag networks is proposed. A dual-CCD system (vertical and horizontal cameras) is used to obtain images of RFID multi-tag networks from different angles. The iterative threshold segmentation and the morphological filtering method are used to process the images. The template matching method is respectively used to determine the two-dimensional (2D) coordinate and the vertical coordinate of each tag. After that, the 3D coordinate of each tag is obtained. Finally, a back-propagation (BP) neural network is used to model the nonlinear relationship between the RFID multi-tag network and the corresponding reading distance. The BP neural network can predict the reading distances of unknown tag groups and find out the optimal distribution structure of the tag groups corresponding to the maximum reading distance. In the future work, the corresponding in-depth research on the neural network to adjust the distribution of tags will be done.
This paper presents a novel sideslip angle estimator based on the pseudo-multi-sensor fusion method. The kinematics-based and dynamics-based sideslip angle estimators are designed for sideslip angle estimation. Also, considering the influence of ill-conditioned matrix and model uncertainty, a novel sideslip angle estimator is proposed based on the wheel speed coupling relationship using a modified recursive least squares algorithm. In order to integrate the advantages of above three sideslip angle estimators, drawing lessons from the multisensory information fusion technology, a novel thinking of sideslip angle estimator design is presented through information fusion of pseudo-multi-sensors. Simulations and experiments were carried out, and effectiveness of the proposed estimation method was verified.
The advance of MEMS-based inertial sensors successfully expands their applications to small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), thus resulting in the challenge of reliable and accurate in-flight alignment for airborne MEMS-based inertial navigation system (INS). In order to strengthen the rapid response capability for UAVs, this paper proposes a robust in-flight alignment scheme for airborne MEMS-INS aided by global navigation satellite system (GNSS). Aggravated by noisy MEMS sensors and complicated flight dynamics, a rotation-vector-based attitude determination method is devised to tackle the in-flight coarse alignment problem, and the technique of innovation-based robust Kalman filtering is used to handle the adverse impacts of measurement outliers in GNSS solutions. The results of flight test have indicated that the proposed alignment approach can accomplish accurate and reliable in-flight alignment in cases of measurement outliers, which has a significant performance improvement compared with its traditional counterparts.
The paper deals with the preparation and measurement of an experimental polymer graphite cathode that seems to be a promising and cheap source of electrons utilizing cold field-emission in high- and ultra-high vacuum. Polymer graphite seems to be a proper material as it contains a large amount of hybridized carbon with a low degree of surface oxidation and silicon monoxide (SiO). Within the frame of this work, a special experimental method of tip preparation has been designed and tuned. This method is based on ion milling inside a dual-beam electron microscope enabling to obtain ultra-sharp tips of a diameter smaller than 100 nm with a predefined opening angle. The charge transport within experimental samples is evaluated based on results provided by the noise spectroscopy of the total emission current in the time and frequency domains.
To solve the problem of large deformation soft rock roadway with complicated stress condition in Baluba copper mine, the characteristics of roadway deformation and failure modes are analyzed deeply on the basis of geological survey. Combined with the theoretical analysis and numerical simulation, the new reinforcement technology with floor mudsill and grouting anchor cable is proposed. Moreover, the three dimension numerical simulation model is established by the software FLAC-3D, the support parameter is optimized by it. The results show that the optical array pitch of the U-steel shelf arch is 0.8 m, and the optical array pitch of the grouting anchor cable is 2.4 m. At last, the field experiments are done all over the soft rock roadway. Engineering practice shows that the deformation of soft rock roadway in Baluba copper mine is effectively controlled by adopting the new reinforcement technology, which can provide certain references for similar engineering.
Sensitivity analysis of the dynamic response of both the designed and the actual models of a slewing superstructure with two masts to the variation of the counterweight mass and the degree of accuracy of the approximation polynomials of the digging resistance was conducted in the paper. Spatial reduced dynamic models of the bucket wheel excavator SchRs 1600 were used as a basis for the presented investigations. Based on the comparative analysis of the calculation results, the following conclusions were drawn: (a) mass of the counterweight has a significantly higher influence on the maximum intensities of accelerations of the referent points than on the spectrum of natural frequencies, (b) the accuracy of approximations of the digging resistance and the maximum values of accelerations differ by an order of magnitude, for the approximation trigonometric polynomial of the same number of harmonics.
It is meaningful to study the issues of CO migration and its concentration distribution in a blind gallery to provide a basis for CO monitoring and calculation of fume-drainage time, which is of a great significance to prevent fume-poisoning accidents and improve efficiency of an excavation cycle. Based on a theoretical analysis of a differential change of CO mass concentration and the CO dispersion model in a fixed site, this paper presents several blasting fume monitoring test experiments, carried out with the test location to the head LP in arrange of 40-140 m. Studies have been done by arranging multiple sensors in the arch cross-section of the blind gallery, located at the Guilaizhuang Gold Mine, Shandong Province, China. The findings indicate that CO concentrations in the axial directions are quadratic functions with the Y and Z coordinate values of the cross-section of the blind gallery in an ascending stage of CO time- -concentration curve, with the maximum CO concentrations in Y = 150 cm and Z = 150 cm. Also, the gradients of CO concentration in the gallery are symmetrical with the Y = 150 cm and Z = 150 cm. In the descending stage of CO time-concentration curve, gradients of CO concentration decrease in lateral sides and increase in the middle, then gradually decrease at last. The rules of CO concentration distribution in the cross-section are that airflow triggers the turbulent change of the CO distribution volume concentration and make the CO volume concentration even gradually in the fixed position of the gallery. Moreover, the CO volume concentrations decrease gradually, as well as volume concentration gradients in the cross-section. The uniformity coefficients of CO concentration with duct airflow velocities of 12.5 m/s, 17.7 m/s and 23.2 m/s reach near 0.9 at 100-140 m from the heading to the monitoring spot. The theoretical model of a one-dimensional migration law of CO basically coincides with the negative exponential decay, which is verified via fitting. The average effective turbulent diffusion coefficient of CO in the blind gallery is approximate to 0.108 m2/s. There are strong linear relationships between CO initial concentration, CO peak concentrations and mass of explosive agent, which indicates that the CO initial concentration and the CO peak concentration can be predicted, based on the given range of the charging mass. The above findings can provide reliable references to the selection, installation of CO sensors and prediction of the fume-drainage time after blasting.
The evaluation accuracies of rock mass structures based on the ratings of the Rock Quality Designation (RQD) and discontinuity spacing (S) in the Rock Mass Rating (RMR) system are very limited due to the inherent restrictions of RQD and S. This study presents an improvement that replaces these two parameters with the modified blockiness index (Bz) in the RMR system. Before proceeding with this replacement, it is necessary for theoretical model building to make an assumption that the discontinuity network contains three sets of mutually orthogonal disc-shaped discontinuities with the same diameter and spacing of discontinuities. Then, a total of 35 types of theoretical DFN (Discrete Fracture Network) models possessing the different structures were built based on the International Society for Rock Mechanics (ISRM) discontinuity classification (ISRM, 1978). In addition, the RQD values of each model were measured by setting the scanlines in the models, and the Bz values were computed following the modified blockiness evaluation method. Correlations between the three indices (i.e., Bz, RQD and S) were explored, and the reliability of the substitution was subsequently verified. Finally, RMR systems based on the proposed method and the standard approach were applied to real cases, and comparisons between the two methods were performed. This study reveals that RQD is well correlated with S but is difficult to relate to the discontinuity diameter (D), and Bz has a good correlation with RQD/S. Additionally, the ratings of RQD and S are always far from the actual rock mass structure, and the Bz ratings are found to give better characterizations of rock mass structures. This substitution in the RMR system was found to be acceptable and practical.
The main objective of this study was to assess the environmental impact of the subsurface geological structure in Nam Son landfill by hydrogeophysical method. The Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), Self- -Potential (SP) and Very Low Frequency (VLF) method was used for geological structure investigation. Three profiles (total 900 m long) of two-dimensional ERT, VLF density sections and 180 SP data points scattered within the study area near the disposal site were implemented. Surface water and groundwater samples were collected from 10 sites in the area for hydrochemical analysis. Interpretations of geophysical data show a low resistivity zone (<15 Ω m), which appears to be a fully saturated zone with leachate from an open dumpsite. There is a good correlation between the geophysical investigations and the results of hydrochemical analysis.
Lower Carboniferous limestone has been extracted in the “Czatkowice” open-pit hill-slope quarry in southern Poland since 1947, for the needs of metallurgical and building industries, as well as farming. We can distinguish two aquifers in the Czatkowice area: the Quaternary porous aquifer and the Carboniferous fissure-porous one. Two vertical zones representing different hydrodynamic characteristics can be indentified in the Carboniferous formations. One is a weathering zone and the other one the zone of fissures and interbedding planes. Groundwater inflows into the quarry workings have been observed at the lowest mining level (+315 m above the sea level (asl)) for over 30 years. This study concerns two hypotheses of the sources of such inflows originating either from (a) the aeration zone or from (b) the saturation zone. Inflows into the quarry combine into one stream flowing gravitationally to the doline under the pile in the western part of the quarry. This situation does not cause a dewatering need. Extending eastward mining and lowering of the exploitation level lead to increased inflows.
In order to optimize the stope structure parameters in broken rock conditions, a novel method for the optimization of stope structure parameters is described. The method is based on the field investigation, laboratory tests and numerical simulation. The grey relational analysis (GRA) is applied to the optimization of the stope structure parameters in broken rock conditions with multiple performance characteristics. The influencing factors include stope height, pillar diameter, pillar spacing and pillar array pitch, the performance characteristics include maximum tensile strength, maximum compressive strength and ore recovery rate. The setting of influencing factors is accomplished using the four factors four levels Taguchi experiment design method, and 16 experiments are done by numerical simulation. Analysis of the grey relational grade indicates the first effect value of 0.219 is the pillar array pitch. In addition, the optimal stope structure parameters are as follows: the height of the stope is 3.5 m, the pillar diameter is 3.5 m, the pillar spacing is 3 m and the pillar array pitch is 5 m. In-situ measurement shows that all of the pillars can basically remain stable, ore recovery rate can be ensured to be more than 82%. This study indicates that the GRA method can efficiently applied to the optimization of stope structure parameters.