Distillation boundaries originate from saddle azeotropes, dividing the composition space into distillation regions. In heterogeneous mixtures distilled in packed columns, distillation regions overlap. The common area of distillation regions is parametrically sensitive, and it determines the possibilities of crossing (at a finite reflux) the distillation boundaries defined for a total reflux or reboil ratio. This work is an extended research of the paper (Królikowski et al., 2011) conducted to scrutinize whether the distillation regions overlapped in heteroazeotropic systems distilled in staged columns. Presented studies were performed by finding such composition points of the products, for which the rectifying profiles of staged columns were ended in different distillation regions. Calculations were executed for the heterogeneous mixture classified under Serafimov's topological class as 3.1-2: ethanol - benzene - water. Distillation regions for staged columns were found to overlap each other in the heterogeneous systems. As a result, their common part was parametrically sensitive.
The article concerns fly ashes generated from the combustion of hard coal and deposited on landfills. Investigation results describing fly ash taken from a combustion waste landfill are presented in the article. The investigation results indicate a possibility for combusting the coal reclaimed by separation from the fly ash and utilizing the remaining fly ash fractions.
Tests for combustion of hay and sunflower husk pellets mixed with wood pellets were performed in a horizontal-feed as well as under-feed (retort) wood pellet furnace installed in boilers with a nominal heat output of 15 and 20 kW, located in a heat station. During the combustion a slagging phenomenon was observed in the furnaces. In order to lower the temperature in the furnace, fuel feeding rate was reduced with unaltered air stream rate. The higher the proportion of wood pellets in the mixture the lower carbon monoxide concentration. The following results of carbon monoxide concentration (in mg/m3 presented for 10% O2 content in flue gas) for different furnaces and fuel mixtures (proportion in wt%) were obtained: horizontal-feed furnace supplied with hay/wood: 0/100 - 326; 30/70 - 157; 50/50 - 301; 100/0 - 3300; horizontal-feed furnace supplied with sunflower husk/wood: 50/50 - 1062; 67/33 - 1721; 100/0 - 3775; under-feed (retort) furnace supplied with hay/wood: 0/100 - 90; 15/85 - 157; 30/70 - 135; 50/50 - 5179; under-feed furnace supplied with sunflower husk/wood: 67/33 - 2498; 100/0 - 3128. Boiler heat output and heat efficiency was low: 7 to 13 kW and about 55%, respectively, for the boiler with horizontal-feed furnace and 9 to 14 kW and 64%, respectively, for the boiler with under-feed furnace.
The objective of this study is to investigate the change in partition coefficient with a change in the concentration of the solute in a liquid system consisting of two relatively immiscible solvents. To investigate the changes in the partition coefficients, the data of the partition coefficients at infinite dilution and the ternary Liquid-Liquid Equilibrium (LLE) data at finite concentrations of the solute should be consistent. In this study, 29 ternary systems that are found in literature and for which the partition coefficients at infinite dilution and the ternary LLE data cannot be predicted accurately by the universal quasi-chemical (UNIQUAC) model are identified. On the basis of this model, some consistent and inconsistent ternary systems are introduced. Three inconsistent systems, namely hexane-butanol-water, CCl4 (carbon tetrachloride)-PA (propanoic acid)-water, and hexane-PA-water, are chosen for detailed analysis in this study. The UNIQUAC activity coefficient model is used to represent these data over a range of concentrations. The results show large errors, exhibiting the inability of this model to correlate the data. Furthermore, some ternary systems in which cross behavior of solutes between two phases observed are identified.
Fast development of computation techniques for electrolyte activities contributed recently to introduction of a few substantial programmes for thermodynamic computing of multiphase systems. The presented study comprises useful information for practical computing using selected thermodynamic models of aqueous electrolyte solutions. Those models enable quantitative description of both phase and ionic equilibria and provide values of activity coefficients. The carried out analysis of individual models involved a comparison of their practical effectiveness features along with problems encountered in evaluation of the coefficients. The authors conclude that for the Solvay soda system the exUNIQUAC model for an in-house code or the MSE model for a commercial one can be used.
In the paper, on the basis of our studies and the available literature data, a model of changes in the number of active centers corresponding to the structure of the reactive coal particle has been developed. A new distribution function that links the specific surface area of a particle with its porosity and reaction degree has been proposed. An equation for estimation of changes in this parameter during the reaction, on the basis of the initial value, has been presented. In the range of our data and the analysis of the literature data, the model, with satisfactory accuracy, describes internal structural changes of coal and coal char particles. The present results may constitute a basis for complex modelling of coal conversion processes. Based on the results it was found that the total active centres are related to the internal surface area and porosity of the particle. For a specific coal type, this value depends on the porosity, true density and size of the particle. Changes in total active centres, when these structural properties during thermal conversion of coal are considered, are described in equations.
The motion of submicron particles involves the deterministic terms resulting from the aerodynamic convection and/or electrostatic attraction, and the stochastic term from the thermal displacement of particles. The Langevin equation describes such behavior. The Brownian dynamics algorithm was used for integration of the Langevin equation for the calculation of the single fiber deposition efficiency. Additionally the deterministic and stochastic of the particle motion were derived, using the Lagrangian and Eulerian approaches of particle movement and balance, for the calculation of the single fiber deposition efficiency due to both mechanisms separately. Combination of the obtained results allows us for calculation of the coupling effect of inertia and interception with the Brownian diffusion in a form of correlation. The results of calculation show that the omitting of the coupling effect of particular mechanism and using the simple additive rule for determination of the single fiber deposition efficiency introduces significant error, especially for particles with diameter below 300 nm.
This paper presents a method of describing an airlift bioreactor, in which biodegradation of a carbonaceous substrate described by single-substrate kinetics takes place. Eight mathematical models based on the assumption of liquid plug flow and axial dispersion flow through the riser and the downcomer in the reactor were proposed. Additionally, the impact of degassing zone with assumed complete mixing on the obtained results was analyzed. Calculations were performed for two representative hydrodynamic regimes of reactor operation, i.e. with the presence of gas bubbles only within the riser and for complete gas circulation. The conclusions related to the apparatus design and process performance under sufficient aeration of the reaction mixture were drawn on the basis of the obtained results.
The article describes the testing of four selected samples of limestone originating from four commercially exploited deposits. The tests of sorbents included a physicochemical analysis and calcination in different atmospheres. The main aim of the tests was to determine the possibilities for using limestone during combustion in oxygen-enriched atmospheres. Tests in a synthetic flue gas composition make it possible to assess the possibility of CaCO3 decomposition in atmospheres with an increased CO2 concentration.
This paper presents an analysis of the corrosion hazard in the burner belt area of waterwalls in pulverised fuel (PF) boilers that results from low-NOx combustion. Temperature distributions along the waterwall tubes in subcritical (denoted as SUB) and supercritical (SUP) boilers were calculated and compared. Two hypothetical distributions of CO concentrations were assumed in the near-wall layer of the flue gas in the boiler furnace, and the kinetics of the waterwall corrosion were analysed as a function of the local temperature of the tubes. The predicted rate of corrosion of the boiler furnace waterwalls in the supercritical boilers was compared with that of in the subcritical boilers.
The paper presents an overview of scaling models used for determining hydrodynamic parameters of Circulating Fluidized Bed boilers. The governing equations and the corresponding dimensionless numbers are derived and presented for three different approaches to the scaling law of fluidized beds: classical dimensional analysis, differential equations and integrated solutions and experimental correlations. Some results obtained with these equations are presented. Finally, the capabilities and limitations of scaling experiments are discussed.
This is an extended research of the paper (Islam et al., 2011) conducted to obtain a universal set of interaction parameters of the model NRTL over the temperature range 10 - 100 °C for hexane-butanol-water system; meaning for binary pairs hexane-butanol, butanol-water and hexane-water; and for ternary system hexane-butanol-water. Thorough investigations of data selections for all binary pairs (Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium (VLE), Liquid-Liquid Equilibrium (LLE)), infinite dilution activity coefficient (γ∞), infinite dilution distribution coefficient (Dsw), excess enthalpy (HE), and for ternary system (LLE of hexane-butanol-water) were carried out. Finally quadratic temperature dependent interaction parameters were estimated regressing all the mentioned data and in each case calculated results were compared with literature values. The comparisons showed an overall percentage of error within 15% for the mentioned phase equilibrium calculations.
The depletion of stocks of fossil fuels and the environment protection requirements increase the significance of hydrogen as a future energy carrier. The present research is focused on the development of new safe methods of production, transport and storage of hydrogen. The paper presents an analysis of problems related to the assessment of the effects of failure of hydrogen transporting pipelines. Scenarios of hazardous events connected with an uncontrollable leakage of hydrogen are discussed. The sizes of heat radiation and pressure wave hazard zones are determined.
Thermodynamic equilibrium-based models of gasification process are relatively simple and widely used to predict producer gas characteristics in performance studies of energy conversion plants. However, if an unconstrained calculation of equilibrium is performed, the estimations of product gas yield and heating value are too optimistic. Therefore, reasonable assumptions have to be made in order to correct the results. This paper proposes a model of the process that can be used in case of deficiency of information and unavailability of experimental data. The model is based on free energy minimization, material and energy balances of a single zone reactor. The constraint quasi-equilibrium calculations are made using approximated amounts of non-equilibrium products, i.e. solid char, tar, CH4 and C2H4. The yields of these products are attributed to fuel characteristics and estimated using experimental results published in the literature. A genetic algorithm optimization technique is applied to find unknown parameters of the model that lead to the best match between modelled and experimental characteristics of the product gas. Finally, generic correlations are proposed and quality of modelling results is assessed in the aspect of its usefulness for performance studies of power generation plants.