The correlation-regression method, as one of the indirect sampling methods, is only sporadically used in geological and mining activities. Theoretically, it should be particularly useful for predicting the content of some chemical components in limestone and marl deposits due to the correlation between them. The results of simple and multiple correlation and regression analysis for 5 selected components (CaO, SiO2, Al2O3, MgO, and SO3), determined in samples from exploratory boreholes and blast holes carried out in the Barcin-Piechcin-Pakość deposit, are presented in the article. The determination coefficients were used as a measure of the correlation power and the quality of the regression models. A very strong linear correlation between CaO and SiO2 content and strong linear correlations between CaO and Al2O3 and SiO2 with Al2O3 have been found. The correlation relationships of the remaining pairs of oxides are weak or very weak and do not provide a basis for prediction of their content based on regression models binding them with the content of other components. The use of nonlinear models for these pairs of oxides results in only a slight improvement in the quality of regression, insignificant from a practical point of view. The application of multiple regression models, linking the content of the mentioned components (with the exception of CaO), leads to similar conclusions. Compared to the determination coefficients of a simple linear correlation, a strong increase in determination coefficients obtained in two cases was found to be artificial and caused by a correlation between the content of the selected components acting as independent variables. From the geological and mining point of view, the results of the analysis indicate the possibility of a fully reliable prediction of SiO2 content and the limited reliability of the Al2O3 content prediction when the CaO content is determined using simple linear regression models.
The article describes the influence of anomalous values and local variability on the structure of variability and the estimation of deposit parameters. The research was carried out using statistical and geostatistical methods based on the Pb accumulation index in the shale series in part of the Cu-Ag ore deposit, LGCD (Lubin-Głogów Copper District). The authors recommend the use of a geostatistical tool, the so-called semivariogram cloud to determine the anomalous values. Anomalous values determined by the geostatistical method and removed from the dataset have resulted in a significant reduction of the relative variability of data, which is still very large in the case of the analyzed parameter or parameters with similar statistical features such as extreme variability and strongly asymmetric distribution. Calculations of the resources of this element can be treated only as estimates and formally classified to category D. The hypothetical assumption of the absence of sampling errors, resulting in a decrease in the magnitude of local variation, leads to a certain reduction of the median error of resource estimates. However, they are still high (> 35%). This is due to the large natural variability of the accumulation index of Pb on the local observation scale. The current method for collecting samples from mine workings of the Cu-Ag deposits in the Lubin-Głogów Copper District (LGCD), aimed at the proper assessment of copper resources, the Cu content, and at estimating the quality of copper output, makes it impossible to achieve an accuracy of estimates of Pb resources similar to that obtained for the main metal. Theoretically, this effect can be achieved by a strong concentration of the sample collection points and thanks to a multiple increase in the samples weight; this, however, is unrealistic for both economic and organizational reasons. It is therefore to be expected that the assessment of Pb resources and other accompanying elements of similar statistical features (e.g. As), located in parts of the deposit where mining activities are to be carried out, will be subject to significant errors.
The presented article describes the relationship between lithological and facies development of reservoir rocks in the area of the roof elevation of the Weissliegend sandstones, with a particular emphasis on the influence of elevation on the occurrence of low mineralization zones in the deposit area. To illustrate the variability of the deposit parameters, closely related to the facies and lithological conditions of the host rocks, three-dimensional lithological and geochemical models for two research areas were developed using the geostatistical methods and based on field observations and the sampling of the deposit. The research area includes parts of the Northern Elevation of Rudna and the surrounding depressions within the boundaries of the Sieroszowice and Rudna deposits. Based on cross-sections of the 3D models, a different deposit formation in the roof elevation area of sandstone formations has been characterized; the lithological profile is defined as „atypical” due to the absence of a copper-bearing shale series, the most characteristic layer for copper ore deposits in the Fore -Sudetic monocline. Large variations in the shape of the deposit and the irregular boundaries of both balance mineralization and enclaves of gangue have been confirmed. The presence of large-scale enclaves of igneous rock in the entire profile of the Lower Zechstein rocks (areas without the balance copper mineralization) and small areas of gangue (sandstone) enriched with anhydrite binders adjacent to the parts of balance deposit located in argillaceous sandstone has been revealed. The possibility of the occurrence of gangue, in the area of the roof elevation of the Weissliegend sandstones directly adjacent to the border with calcareous dolomite, and irregular gangue partings in sandstone formations in the balance deposit was indicated. In addition, small areas of strong enrichment in Cu sulphides were observed in the contact zones between sulphate and clay binders in the Weissliegend sandstone series.
The article presents basic changes introduced in the first edition of the governmental Urban Planning and Building Code. The changes regard spatial development, especially planning and permit documents, and competences of the governmental bodies in accepting, legislating and issuing such documents. In this respect, the article points out important regulations for the mining industry, in particular for deposit protection and the initiation of mining projects. In certain cases, critical opinions of some of the governmental institutions are mentioned. In a new document regarding the “Spatial Development Study of a Community”, the draft of the Code orders a division of the community into functional zones. Therefore a mining and extractive industry could be delimited as a functional zone. The Code also specifies that while delimiting a new urbanization area, the documented mining deposits areas should be avoided. In relation to the local spatial plan, the Code establishes the following: in documented strategic mining deposit zones the initiation of non-public purpose investments can only be carried out according to the urban spatial plan. This project also orders that only the local spatial plan can allow for the localization of “establishments that carry a risk of serious industrial breakdown” and “investments that can seriously impact the environment”. The Code also introduces another innovation: the possibility of issuing the local spatial plan with an integrated evaluation on the environmental impact. The “investment permits” are intended to replace both the previous building permits and previous decisions on the conditions of development of the areas not covered in the local spatial plans. The investment permits referring to mining establishments will be issued by the mining administration authorities. The main adverse change for mining is that the exploration of mining deposits owned by the State Treasury loses its previous status of public purposes. The article also indicates that some of the described regulations might be changed during the further legislation process.
Spalanie odpadów komunalnych w domowych piecach to problem, z którym boryka się wiele polskich samorządów. Zarządzanie procesami zwalczania i zapobiegania tym zjawiskom jest niezwykle trudne, ponieważ przepisy prawne oraz wymagania jednostek samorządu terytorialnego są niejednoznaczne. Kolejnym istotnym problemem jest stosowanie różnego rodzaju dodatków do paliw stałych. Często dodatki te, pomimo wysokich walorów energetycznych, nie powinny zostać poddane procesowi spalania przez indywidualnych użytkowników z powodu warunków technicznych procesu spalania w indywidualnych urządzeniach grzewczych. Z punktu widzenia użytkownika przy obowiązujących uwarunkowaniach prawnych nie ma możliwość zweryfikowania składu paliwa na etapie zakupu. Podjęta w artykule tematyka wskazuje na przyczyny zjawiska i podkreśla potrzeby wdrożenia modelu identyfikacji. W pracy szczegółowo omówiono diagnozę aktualnej sytuacji w zakresie interesariuszy przedsięwzięcia z uwzględnieniem ich potrzeb, oczekiwań przy uwzględnieniu obowiązujących przepisów prawnych. W artykule wskazano możliwości w zakresie potencjalnych technik identyfikacji domieszek w materiałach opałowych, co pozwoli uzyskać skuteczne narzędzie jednoznacznie określające skład i czystość materiału opałowego oraz co istotniejsze produkty ich spalania. Ponadto przeanalizowano techniki umożliwiające weryfikację spalania i/lub współspalania odpadów komunalnych przez indywidualne urządzenia grzewcze, podkreślając wybrane modele koncepcji. W pracy wskazano na istotny element wdrożenia, którym jest ocena skuteczności. Zakłada się, iż z punktu widzenia założonego celu i przeprowadzonej analizy otoczenia wdrożenia zarówno po stronie interesariuszy, jak i wymagań prawnych, zaproponowany model koncepcji będzie skutecznym elementem poprawy jakości powietrza w zakresie eliminacji procederu nielegalnego spalania, termicznego przekształcania odpadów komunalnych przez użytkowników palenisk domowych oraz wskazania, czy paliwo stałe stosowane do spalania nie stanowi mieszaniny paliwa legalnego z dodatkami nieznanego pochodzenia.
The article provides the external indications (both international and domestic) showing how important creating an appropriate mineral policy of the country is, especially in the context of mineral security. The current mandatory legal regulations referring to mineral policy and mineral security of the country were presented and discussed against this background, starting with provisions of the Constitution of the Republic of Poland, through the Strategy for Sustainable Development, Spatial Management Concept of the Country 2030 together with Action Plan, Strategy for Energy Security and Environment – 2020 perspective, Geological and Mining Law and other legal acts and implementing provisions, Action Plan “Raw Materials for the Industry” announced by the Minister of Development, the Concept for Mineral Policy presented by the Government Plenipotentiary for the Mineral Policy, and finally – project of the Urban and Building Code in the area of spatial development. In the case of documents being in the course of the proceedings, the current state of working on them is presented, also in the context of particular projected legal solutions for future regulations. The author indicates and justifies the need of accelerating the work and taking actions to prevent the currently appearing phenomena that may impede the execution of the raw materials policy and the protection of key raw materials in the future.
According to Article 37 of the GMA if the entrepreneur: - violates the requirements of the Act, in particular concerning the environment protection and the rational development of the deposit, or - fails to comply with conditions specified in the concession, including not undertaking the foreseen activity or permanently stops thereof, the concession authority summon it to cease the infringements, or - performs geological operations violating the schedule defined in the geological operations plan, or - fails to carry out the obligations referred to in Article 82 para 2, or - performs them in a manner violating the conditions defined in the provisions issued pursuant to Article 82a. para 1, the license authority, by way of the decision, requests the entrepreneur that the infringements be remedied, with indication of the relevant time limit. The license authority may also prescribe the method of remedying of the said infringements. The problem arises, because the geological operations plan for the licensed activity (firstly for the prospecting and exploration of the mining property minerals) is only the appendix to the application for the geological license and is not approved by any decision. However, if the entrepreneur fails to perform the decision referred to in paragraph 1, the license authority may, without indemnification: revoke the license or if the entrepreneur is found to perform the geological operations in breach of the schedule defined in the geological operations plan - revoke the license or reduce its scope. The license authority shall discontinue the proceedings if it finds that the entrepreneur: does not infringe upon the requirements referred to in paragraph 1, has infringed upon the requirements referred to in paragraph 1, however the reason for such an infringement was force majeure or has fulfilled the decision referred to in paragraph 1 (para 3).The license authority may revoke the license without indemnification if a decision has been issued that declares exercising the rights arising from the shares of an entrepreneur impermissible, pursuant to the provisions of the Act of 24 July 2015 on the Control of Certain Investments, if this serves the public interest, in particular in connection with the national security or the protection of environment, with reasonable management of mineral deposits included (para 4).
In the process of determining the content of impurities, including fossil fuels, crude oil, coke, pitch, plastics, glass, slag, rust, metals, and rock dust, in charcoal and wood briquettes via microscopic examination, the question of the use of ashes from the combustion of grill fuels (taking the scale of the new national sport into account, commonly referred to as „weekend grilling”) was raised. Another reason for addressing this issue was the question regarding the use of organic additives to acidified soil (mineral) fertilizers submitted by one of the clients of the bituminous coal and reservoir rocks analysis laboratory. In addition, the manufacturer of gardening soil has also expressed an interest in an unconventional deacidifying agent; the introduction of a new product with a unique ingredient is considered as a chance to stand out from the competition. A review of the literature shows that attempts to use ashes obtained from the biomass combustion in power boilers have been made. However, due to the biomass composition and additives and pollutants used in biomass for energy purposes, the production of such mixtures has been dropped. Based on the data from numerous samples of grill fuel, which meet the requirements regarding the content of impurities set out in the PN-EN 1860-2 standard, the question of the possible use of ash obtained from charcoal and wood briquette grilling as a component for use in the production of acidified soil (mineral) fertilizers was discussed. The article will present the amount of material obtained based on the statistical sales of barbecue fuels based on the experimentally calculated ash mass resulting from the combustion of 1 kg of starting material. In addition, a logistic proposal for obtaining ash from individual grill users will be developed. On the day of the submission of the present work, the results of the chemical analysis of charcoal and wood briquettes subjected to the gasification process have not yet been obtained. However, based on the microscopic analysis, it can be concluded that the content of impurities in the examined samples is highly unlikely to prevent the use of the mentioned ashes in agriculture.
In view of the world’s recent changes in the mineral market, it is becoming increasingly important to ensure the sustainable and secure supply of raw materials, both within the European Union and in other high-developed countries. In response to this global challenge, as part of the European Commission’s Horizon 2020 Program for Research & Innovation, the 36-month INTRAW project was launched in February 2015 to foster international cooperation on raw materials. The EU-funded INTRAW project was set up to map and develop new cooperation opportunities related to raw materials between the EU and other technologically advanced countries, such as: Australia, Canada, Japan, South Africa and the United States. The first stage of the project was a review of conditions for the stable supply of raw materials from primary and secondary sources in selected countries: the United States, Canada, Australia, South Africa and Japan. The results of the work are two groups of comprehensive reports. The first of these is a broad contextual analysis of geological, environmental, political, technical -economic and social factors conducive to the effective management of mineral resources. The second group is operational reports, carried out in three thematic blocks: industry and trade, research and innovation, education. The analysis clearly shows that the basis for effective action in this area is a stable political, economic and institutional environment, which is friendly to mining and new entities wishing to invest in modern technologies, the exploration and exploitation of deposits. Investors are encouraged by tax regulations, sometimes also by direct government financial support and efficient licensing procedures. The well-defined protection of property rights, also for deposits is equally important. Selected aspects of a wide analysis of determinants of competitiveness for these countries were presented in the article below.
In the last decade, Poland has become one of the most active markets for unconventional hydrocarbon deposits exploration. At present, there are twenty concessions for the exploration and/or discovery of reserves, including shale gas. The area covered by exploration concessions constitutes ca. 7.5% of the country’s area. Four main stages can be distinguished In the shale gas development and exploitation project: the selection and preparation of the place of development of the wells, hydraulic drilling and fracturing, exploitation (production) and marketing, exploitation suppression and land reclamation. In the paper, the concept of cost analysis of an investment project related to the exploration and development of a shale gas field/area was presented. The first two stages related to the preparatory work, carried out on the selected site, as well as drilling and hydraulic fracturing were analyzed. For economic reasons, the only rational way to make shale gas reserves available is to use horizontal drilling, either singly or in groups. The number of drilling pads covering the concession area is a fundamental determinant of the development cost of the deposit. In the paper, the results of the cost analysis of various types of reaming method with an area of 25,000,000 m2 were presented. Cost estimates were prepared for two variants: group drilling for three types of drilling pads: with three, five and seven wells and for single wells. The results show that, as the number of horizontal wells increases, the total cost of the development of the deposit is reduced. For tree-wells pad, these costs are 7% lower than in the second variant, for five-well pads they are 11% lower, and for seven-well pads they are 11.5% smaller than in the second variant. Authors, using applied methodology, indicate the direction of further research that will enable the optimization of shale gas drilling operations.
The problem of deposit protection and the process of liquidation of mining plants does not find effective solutions in the national law. Nevertheless, this is a very up-to-date issue. This situation prompted the authors of the article to once again analyze these issues. The number of abandoned exploitation sites which were published in the Polish Geological Institute reports should affect the entire licensing system and the state’s raw material policy. As a good host of raw materials, which we have been given by Earth Mother, we cannot allow that the mining licensing system, the liquidation procedures of mining plants without due diligence, result in the lack of protection of these deposits. The rational raw material economy and the ability to exploit it for the future generations, while failing to effectively enforce the site liquidation process makes it necessary to take actions leading to not blocking the mineral deposits in this way. The analysis shows what appropriate actions should be taken. The authors have thoroughly investigated the legal regulations over the past century, compiling them with the current legislation, and pointing out the weaknesses of the system in the field of deposits protection, particularly in the part of the unexploited deposits. Criticism covered both the statutory regulations – Geological and mining law as well as executive acts in the field of deposit protection. A separate analysis was subjected to the procedure of liquidation of the mining plants in the aspect of deposits protection, for mining plants operating on the basis of the Province Marshal’s licenses. The process presented in the flowchart layout clearly shows the weak points of the currently operating system.
The utilization of mining waste is an important problem in Poland and Ukraine. The article presents one of the variants of waste mining in the quarry in Płaza. An analysis of the resource base of the deposit and their location at the area of Płaza deposit is carried out. The Płaza deposit is located in the western part of the Małopolskie province, in the entire Chrzanów commune. The Płaza deposit is constructed of Middle Triassic carbonates represented by the limestone-dolomite Olkusz Formation and the limestone-marlized Gogolin Formation. The deposit series lies on the dolomites of Röt age (Lower Triassic – Olenekian). The most valuable raw material was the pure limestone from the lower part of the Olkusz Formation, now almost completely exploited. The article presents the current state of mineable reserves of the deposit and their quality (chemical and physical characteristics). Moreover the article shows potential consumers of raw material and the possibility of extending the life of the mine work. According to the results of the environmental monitoring the ground and hydrogeological conditions were evaluated, the results of which allowed a more efficient use of the existing quarry area for mining waste disposal to be proposed. The paper presents a conceptual waste transport scheme, planned distribution and compaction of wastes belonging to the first, second and third group and then a surface reclamation. In view of the absence of similar decisions analogs, the consideration of the open-pit as a one solid geomechanical system functioning under the conditions of uncertainty is suggested. In order to examine the dynamics of the waste compaction process, some measures are foreseen to constantly observe their subsidence. The proposed measures for the synchronous disposal of mining waste in the worked-out area of the open-pit and the simultaneous mining operation in the quarry will allow the life cycle of the open-pit to be prolonged for 15–20 years.
The aim of this paper is an analysis of the variability of the methane content in coal seams in the area of the Dębieńsko Mine and it’s relation to the geological structure of this coal deposit, and also the possibilities of a methane hazard in the areas of future coal mining and methane utilization as a fuel. The Dębieńsko coal deposit is located in the western part of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (USCB), on the boundary between folded and disjunctive tectonic zones. Coal exploitation in this area ended in 2000, but interest in this deposit is currently high due to plans to initiate coking coal mining. The area of the Dębieńsko mine is relatively well prospected because of the deep drillings (up to 2000 m in depth) carried out within it. The methane conditions of the deposit are varied, the methane content increases with depth according to northern pattern of methane distribution in the USCB, in which the high-methane zone occurs under the several hundred meters zone of natural outgassing of the coal seams. This zone is divided into two smaller methane sub-zones, the first (shallower) at a depth of 1000 m and the second (deeper) at 1700–1900 m. A sub-zone of lower methane content occurs between these two high-methane sub-zones. The most important reasons for this methane distribution are temperature and pressure facilitating the gas adsorption in coal seams, and also the presence of impermeable siltstones and shalestones as well as the maceral composition and coal rank of coal seams. The methane content also changes laterally in accordance with the tectonics of the area. The so called Knurów and Leszczyna Anticline with found increased methane content in coal seams in relation to neighboring areas as well as Orlova Overthrust together with the system of latitudinal faults of brittle tectonic regime which are possible pathways for methane migration play a special role here. These structures can be taken into account as a potential source of methane hazard in a future coal mine, they can also be promising structures for methane prospection as a fuel.
Studies on the quality of bituminous coal are mainly focused on physico-chemical analysis, examining the ash content, sulphur content, volatile matter content, moisture content, and the Net Calorific Value of coal. Until now, the above mentioned parameters form the basis of the Polish Standard PN-82/87002, on the basis of which individual types of bituminous coal are determined. In addition, an elemental analysis, providing information about the content of primary elements in the organic matter of solids, i.e. coal, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, and sulphur, is carried out for the selected samples. This issue has been studied by many authors, which undoubtedly provide invaluable knowledge due to the huge amount of data, but, as the authors themselves indicate, the knowledge of the petrography of coal, coking properties (Probierz et al. 2012) and finally the coke obtained from individual coal types (based on tests carried out using the Karbotest installation or the so-called „box tests” performed in the coke oven battery) is still very limited. The article discusses the impact of petrographic composition on the quality of metallurgical coke. The analysis was performed using samples of coking coal from the following mines: Pniówek, Zofiówka, Borynia, and Krupiński. The mentioned coal types are used to produce coke mixtures used for the production of coke in the Przyjaźń and Radlin coking plants. Based on the rank of coal and physicochemical parameters, the mentioned coal types were classified according to the Polish classification and the UN/ECE International Classification of In-Seam Coals (UN/ECE 1995). The prediction of thermomechanical properties of coke (CSR and CRI) performed according to the original CCP method were compared with the results obtained using the classical method of Nippon Steel Corporation.
The article discusses problems related to rules and regulations determining compensations for the mining usufruct of mineral deposits covered by the so called “state mining ownership”. Specific acts of law framing agreements on mining usufruct between government and mining enterprises were analyzed. Rules and algorithms applied to calculate an appropriate compensation are evaluated leading to several conclusions, including the one about lack of a direct legal grounding for them. Such a situation creates disputes and may be risky for all involved. It was also indicated that, in parallel, the State lets another class of mineral deposits, namely the ones owned as a result of real estate ownership and the related Civil Code regulations confirmed by the mining law. In such cases, a mining entrepreneur gets usufruct of a real estate, but only the one with mineral rights. Subsequently a comparison of the rules and algorithms established for determining compensation for mining usufruct and for usufruct of real-estates comprising rights for mineral assets was performed. Arguments for a far going harmonization between these two were put forward. This implies that a starting point for determining any compensation has to be a valuation of a relevant mineral deposit market value as opposed to any universal, however complicated, prescribed algebraic formula. Such a process is complicated and demands competences in geology, mining and finance. Consequently, regulations set in the Polish Mineral Asset Valuation Code shall be applied to both a running a valuation process and indicating competent persons. As a result, recommendations leading to correlate rules applied in both cases are put forward including the adoption of mineral asset valuation as a fundament to determine the level of compensation for the mining usufruct. The closing section contains recommendations regarding necessary changes in the legal framework.
The article characterizes geological formations occurring in the Polish lignite deposits having the characteristics of raw materials, i.e. accompanying minerals, giving their location, quality characteristics, estimated resources and potential applications. Attention has also been paid to the economic suitability, e.g. in infrastructure works and for the reclamation of many geological formations found in the overburden, classified as so-called earth or rock mass. There are also raw materials of sorption properties representing a huge potential source of minerals valuable for the economy and environmental protection. This refers to e.g.: beidellite clays from Bełchatów, Poznań clays from the region of Konin and Adamów, lacustrine chalk from Bełchatów, as well as Mesozoic limestone from the lignite bedding in Bełchatów. The reasons for the unsatisfactory use of accompanying minerals have been given. The authors described the methods used in the mining operation and processing of associated minerals, also applicable in Poland, as the legal basis for the extraction of these minerals and the economic and financial conditions. They stressed the need to protect mined not associated minerals used by the construction of anthropogenic deposits. This activity primarily requires regulating the legal status of these deposits and the development and application of an economic and financial system that stimulates the economy of these minerals. In summary, the necessary actions were taken to increase the use of the accompanying minerals and their contribution to the balance of mineral resources in the country.
The rocks quarried in the neighboring Rutki and Ligota Tułowicka deposits (vicinity of Niemodlin) represent a single petrographic variety of basalt, i.e. nephelinite. The presence of nepheline (the mineral belonging to the group of feldspathoids) that forms the light-colored component of the groundmass is the characteristic feature of these rocks. Nepheline is accompanied by fine crystals of pyroxene and, occasionally, magnetite. Distinctly larger pyroxene and olivine phenocrysts are dispersed within the groundmass. Neither minerals of the groundmass nor the phenocrysts of the pyroxenes reveal any signs of chemical weathering. However, such alterations are clearly visible in the phenocrysts of olivine. The basalt raw materials of both deposits are utilized mainly for the production of various assortments of crushed road aggregates and as components of concretes. These applications require the aggregates with the grain sizes >2 mm. There is also a possibility to utilize coarse-grained basalt aggregates for the manufacturing of rock wool. This is due to a favorable property of the rocks from Rutki and Ligota Tułowicka that is their relatively low content of magnetite resulting in the low capability of the molten basalt to crystallize. The chemical weathering of the olivine phenocrysts have proceeded toward the formation of clay minerals, among which those of the smectite group prevail. Their elevated quantities occur in the finest aggregate assortment, i.e. 0–0.85 mm. The fineness of this grain fraction and its elevated quantity of clay minerals are two favorable features to utilize this part of the basalt aggregate by the heavy clay industry as an additive improving the physico-mechanical parameters and providing the required red color of ceramic products..
The exploitation and processing of lignite in the Bełchatów region is connected with the formation of various mineral waste materials: varied in origin, mineral and chemical composition and raw material properties of the accompanying minerals, ashes and slags from lignite combustion and reagipsum from wet flue gas desulphurisation installations. This paper presents the results of laboratory tests whose main purpose was to obtain data referring to the potential use of fly ashes generated in the Bełchatów Power Plant and selected accompanying minerals exploited in the Bełchatów Mine in the form of self-solidification mixtures. The beidellite clays were considered as the most predisposed for use from the accompanying minerals , due to pozzolanic and sorption properties and swelling capacity. Despite the expected beneficial effects of clay minerals from the smectite group on the self-settling process as well as the stability of such blends after solidification, the results of physical-mechanical tests (compressive strength and water repellence) were unsatisfactory. It was necessary to use Ca (OH)2, obtained from the lacustrine chalk as an activator of the self-settling process It was necessary to use lacustrine chalk as an activator of the self-solidification process. The presence of calcium will allow the formation of cement phases which will be able to strongly bond the skeletal grains. Also, the addition of reagipsum to the composition of the mixture would contribute to the improvement of the physico-mechanical parameters. The elevated SO4 2– ion in the mixture during the solidification allows for the crystallization of the sulphate phases in the pore space to form bridges between the ash and clay minerals. The use of mixtures in land reclamation unfavourably transformed by opencast mining in the Bełchatów region would result in measurable ecological and economic benefits and would largely solve the problem of waste disposal from the from the operation and processing of lignite energy.
The Legnica deposit is one of the most prospective in the context of future lignite mining. Its extraction will be inseparable from the removal of the rocks of the overburden, the volume of which is very large. Due to the raw material properties, some of the rocks can be classified as accompanying minerals. The raw material identification of overburden sediments in the Legnica lignite deposit is insufficient. So far, they haven’t been the subject of detailed and comprehensive research to prove their usefulness. The article was a summary of the knowledge on this subject. The following should be included in the accompanying minerals: Quaternary sands and gravels, tertiary sands and clays (Poznan clays). They are present in two colour variants in the Legnica deposit - and fiery. The mineral composition of greenish-blue clays allows them to be included in illite-kaolinite- smectite varieties, in turn fiery clays as kaolinite-illite-smectite varieties. The tertiary clays are a very useful raw material for the production of building materials. In addition, they are potential mineral sorbents due to the nature of the association of clay minerals (occurrence of montmorillonite). They also show suitability for building waterproofing barriers. Quaternary gravels and sands, developed in the overburden Legnica deposit are differentiated raw materials. Some of them are raw materials for the construction industry. The glacial tills can be used as a component of ceramic mixtures. Tertiary sands can be used as a proppant material. The information on the raw material properties of these sediments will be one of the essential criteria for their treatment as accompanying minerals. Minerals accompanying those developed in the Legnica deposit should be exploited and deposited selectively. The creation of anthropogenic deposits accumulating these minerals will provide the possibility of their use for decades after the termination of operation.
“Mineral deposit model”, “deposit modelling” are the terms commonly used, although imprecise. This is often identified as the application of computerized methods to the elaboration and presentation of geological information, in particular for the mining design. Deposit modelling is the mode of presentation of deposit features, which in the meaning of the authors of such presentation, describes the deposit features between the points of observations as best as possible. Deposit modelling has a long history (XVI-XVII centuries), however such a term was not used. Varied methods of cartographic presentation of deposits and their features were proposed. The progress in the presentation of the deposit in space using isolines maps has led to the separation of methods of deposits geometrisation. Over time, a simple mathematical statistics method was used to describe the deposit parameters, followed by geostatistical methods. Some of them were however not commonly used as too troublesome. The computer based approach to the presentation of geological data has an unquestionable value but is accompanied by the possibility of inappropriate formalized and erroneous interpretations and a presentation as to whether the basic rules of geological knowledge were neglected. Deposits modeling is a conceptual task and cannot be fully automated.
In 2011, the Miedzi Copper Corporation (MCC) initiated its exploration program involving deep Cu-Ag deposits in the Fore-Sudetic Monocline. A very vast study area was adopted, along with the use of a wide range of research instruments. In the years 2011–2013 the exploration of MCC involved 21 concession areas. The location of concessions for exploration as well as exploration and prospecting was based on the known prognostic and hypothetical areas with confirmed contact of the Rote Fäule facies with the reduced facies, placed in the proximity of the Zechstein elevations. In 2012 and 2013, historical boreholes drilled mainly by the petroleum industry were logged, and in cases where the preservation of rock material allowed, samples were collected for chemical analyses. Moreover, a wide range of specialized examinations was performed, involving organic chemistry, coal macerals, vitrinite reflectance and petrography, with a particular emphasis on the Rock Eval method. The latter allows the presence of the so-called strong Rote Fäule associated with the presence of the richest mineralized horizons to be established. It was equally important for the purpose of exploration to perform the reprocessing of geophysical data using the innovative method of effective reflection coefficients. This allows transforming a conventional seismic image into an impulse form of seismic records, meaning a temporal sequence of coefficients, whose sections can be correlated with the logs of historical boreholes in order to trace the course of lithological series. This method provides a much higher accuracy for determining structural elements crucial for exploration than before, suggesting the presence of various tectonic phenomena important for mineralization. As a result, a more detailed mineralization distribution model was obtained and the so-called sweet spots were pinpointed, becoming an object of further drilling exploration. The number of active concessions was reduced to 6, which resulted largely not just from the absence of ore, but also from economic premises. The drilling program initiated in 2013 and still continued today allowed the discovery and preliminary documentation of three copper and silver deposits in the Fore-Sudetic Monocline. These are the Mozów and Sulmierzyce deposits, where the presence of prospective areas was previously recorded, as well as the Nowa Sól deposit, discovered in the so-called green field, where no ore exploration was previously conducted. At the current stage of identification, each of these deposits contains resources exceeding 5 million tons of equivalent copper, and the performed economic analyses indicate the viability of their extraction using the modern methods of shaft sinking, air conditioning and waste management.
An attempt to summarize the primary iron raw materials and steel market’s hundred years history as well as influence of economic indicators on the iron ore deposit qualification for extraction has been undertaken in the paper. Steel products are crucial to the world economy, and their production has a major impact on the environment. The main factor is the huge scale of the production and growth rate, unprecedented among minerals. Iron ore and concentrates production has increased more than thirty times over the past century, and the geological resource base at the current level of consumption has provided almost 250 years of sufficiency. There have been tremendous changes in the world geography of the ore and steel industry. The iron ore mining industry is the driver of other economic activities (land transport, freight, metallurgy) and involves huge capital and human resources. The consumption of iron raw materials is also considered as an important indicator of the countries development and current or even future economic situation. Population growth remains one of the key stimulating factors. The prices of ore and iron concentrates depend on the quality of the raw material, delivery conditions, market balance and the weight of the ordered cargo. They are usually the subject of negotiations. In the past, they were long-term contracts, while short-term (yearly, quarterly) and current spot transactions are now significant. The prices of ores and concentrates in relation to steel prices are showing a strong correlation. The average iron content of the reserves has been reduced in the largest producers in the 21st century, however it does not translate into the quality of mining output. Exploitation of the richer parts of the mineral deposit is usually carried out. The high content of iron in the output is a response to the technological requirements of the metallurgy where the blast furnace charge should contain at least 56% Fe and 5–8% FeO. The current surplus of geological-mining supply (large resource base) justifies that a mineral deposit choice, destined for excavation, is economic profit maximization as well as social and environmental considerations.