The study consisted in assessing the influence of surface and volume modification on the characteristics of high-temperature creep of castings made of waste products of nickel-based superalloys IN 713C and the MAR-247. The results of high-temperature creep tests performed under conditions of two variants of research were analysed. The characteristics of creep according to variant I were obtained on the basis of earlier studies of these alloys with the parameters T=982o C, σ=150MPa . Variant II included carrying out creep tests of alloy IN713C with the parameters T=760o C, σ =400MPa and alloy MAR247 with the parameters: T=982o C, σ=200MPa.Developed creep characteristics were compared with the results of these alloys with the parameters according to variant I of the study. It was observed that the conditions of experiments carried out depending upon the value of the creep test temperature and stress with the creep stability depends on the size of the macrograin (I variant of the studies) or such influence was not observed (II variant of the studies). Stability of samples with coarse structure in variant I of creep tests was significantly higher than the samples with fragmented grain. It was found that the observed stability conditions are dependent on the dominant deformation mechanisms under creep tests carried out - diffusion mechanism in variant I and a dislocation mechanism in variant II of the study. The conditions for the formation and growth of the cracks in the tested materials, including the morphological characteristics of their macro-and microstructure were tested.
Abstract Though there are many strategies to control single-phase uninterruptible power supply (UPS) inverters, they suffer from some drawbacks, the main being complexity. This paper proposes a simple dual-loop controller for the single-phase UPS inverter with the LC filter. The suggested control scheme uses the capacitor current as the feedback signal in the inner current loop. No fictitious phase generation or reference frame transformations are required, and simple proportional gains are employed as both voltage and current regulators. A feedforward of the derivative of the output voltage is also proposed, which significantly improves the performance of the closed loop control system. Then, based on the model of the inverter with the proposed control strategy, a simple and systematic design procedure is presented. Finally, the theoretical achievements are supported by extensive simulations.
The paper presents the results of comparative tests of the fatigue properties conducted on two non-ferrous alloys designated as Al 6082 and Al 7075 which, due to the satisfactory functional characteristics, are widely used as engineering materials. The fatigue tests were carried out using a proprietary, modified low cycle test (MLCF). Particular attention was paid to the fatigue strength exponent b and fatigue ductility exponent c. Based on the tests carried out, the results comprised within the range defined by the literature were obtained. These results prove a satisfactory sensitivity of the method applied, its efficiency, the possibility of conducting tests in a fully economical way and above all the reliability of the obtained results of the measurements. Thus, the thesis has been justified that the modified low cycle fatigue test (MLCF) can be recommended as a tool used in the development of alloy characteristics within the range of low-cycle variable loads
The present review aims to improve the scope and coverage of the phylogenetic matrices currently in use, as well as explore some aspects of the relationships among Paleogene penguins, using two key skeletal elements, the humerus and tarsometatarsus. These bones are extremely important for phylogenetic analyses based on fossils because they are commonly found solid specimens, often selected as holo− and paratypes of fossil taxa. The resulting dataset includes 25 new characters, making a total of 75 characters, along with eight previously uncoded taxa for a total of 48. The incorporation and analysis of this corrected subset of morphological characters raise some interesting questions considering the relationships among Paleogene penguins, particularly regarding the possible existence of two separate clades including Palaeeudyptes and Paraptenodytes , the monophyly of Platydyptes and Paraptenodytes , and the position of Anthropornis . Additionally, Notodyptes wimani is here recovered in the same collapsed node as Archaeospheniscus and not within Delphinornis, as in former analyses.
The herein paper contains the results of investigations on a new type of cellulose blend used for the manufacture of profiles applied in the process of making gating systems in the foundry industry. A standard cellulose profile was subjected to an experiment. During the experiment the profile was filled with a liquid cast iron and at the same time the temperatures of the liquid metal crystallizing inside the profile were measured as well as the temperature of the outer layer of the profile was controlled. Further, the microstructure of the cast iron, which crystallized out inside the cellulose profile, was analysed and the cellulose, thermally degraded after the experiment, was verified with the use of the chemical analysis method. Moreover, a quality analysis of the original as well as the degraded cellulose profile was run with the use of the FTIR infrared spectroscopy. The presented results revealed that the cellulose blend is aluminium silicate enriched and contains organic binder additives. The cast iron, which crystallized out, tended to have an equilibrium pearlitic structure with the release of graphite and carbides. The generation of disequilibrium ausferrite phases was also observed in the structure.