In the present article the author describes the issue of relation between Synagogue and Church in the context of Johannine writings. The author makes analysis of the Johannine texts in order to show the traces of polemic between Judaism and Christianity. He shows the hostility between Synagogue and Church in the light of terms like aposunagōgos, “Jews” and other polemical expressions which occur in the Gospel of John, in the Letters of John and the Book of Revelation. The author tries to answer the question of how Sitz im Leben of the Johannine writings influences their content. The analysis of Jewish and Christian sources shows the tension and hostility between Rabbinic Judaism and Johannine Community after the destruction of the Jerusalem Temple. It leads to gradual separation between Synagogue and Church. In this article there are shown the reasons for the parting of the ways between Judaism and Christianity and its meaning for the contemporary dialogue between Synagogue and Church.
The article presents the most frequent surname in Lithuania — Kazlauskas. Referring to the article “Mysterious Lewandowski” by K. Skowronek (2000), an attempt has been made to account for this frequency in three various ways. First, the principles behind the quantitative structure of anthroponomasticons (Zipf’s law) and the loss of surnames (genetic drift) are discussed. Then the Slavic origin of the surname under consideration has been highlighted as a typical trait of the majority of surnames in Lithuania. In connection with this fact, it has been stressed that caution must be exercised in proposing a thesis on its origin as a translation from Lithuanian on a mass scale, since this thesis requires plentiful empirical evidence. Finally, the etymology of the name is analyzed. Morphologically it is a typical surname derived from a toponym. This supposition is additionally supported by the existence in Poland of numerous localities called Kozłów, Kozłowo or similar name; these in turn are most likely to have been derived from appellative-based personal names of their owners or inhabitants, such as Kozieł.
No one could have expected that on the first day that LIGO detectors were running, scientists would register signals of gravitational waves. We discuss the watershed discovery confirming the general theory of relativity with Dr. Andrzej Królak from the PAS Institute of Mathematics and Dr. Michał Bejger from the PAS Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Centre, both members of the Virgo-POLGRAW group.
We talk to Roman Topór-Mądry, MD, chairman of the PAS Committee on Public health, and Tomasz Zdrojewski, MD, from the Jagiellonian University’s Public Health Institute, coauthors of the first Report on Diabetes in Poland, about counting the number of diabetics and data-gathering techniques.
Poland’s National Vaccination Program is an essential element in the strategy of prevention of infectious diseases and their complications, here considered with a particular focus on combination vaccines and the need for the Program’s further expansion.
We talk to Dr. Bogdan Jaroszewicz, head of the Białowieża Geobotanical Station of the University of Warsaw, about how planned logging in the Białowieża Forest will damage not only the forest itself but also Poland’s image around the globe.
They are linked to many issues in the economic, political, and social sciences. Their role in the changing world cannot be overestimated. Their significance, though unlikely to wane, will nonetheless be changing. What are “public goods” and what is their future?
“The influenza virus behaves just as it seems to have done for five hundred or a thousand years, and we are no more capable of stopping epidemics or pandemics than our ancestors were,” wrote Charles Cockburn from the World Health Organization back in 1973. Is his remark still just as apt today?
Drought: the very word instills dread, conjuring up images of dried-up wells, barren earth, and – perhaps worse still – empty taps and long lines to access wells. Is Poland likely to experience significant water shortages?
Prof. Mirosław Kofta, a psychologist from the University of Warsaw’s Faculty of Psychology and Institute for Social Studies, discusses political change in Poland, authoritarian personality, and civil society.
We talk about technology, lexicography, and long-forgotten word senses in Polish with Prof. Włodzimierz Gruszczyński from the PAS Institute of the Polish Language, where work is underway on the Electronic Dictionary of the Polish Language of the 17th and 18th Centuries.
The pace of climate change observed since the beginning of the industrial era has prompted scientists to seriously consider whether human activity is to blame for global warming. On the geological timescale, however, climate change is certainly nothing new or exceptional – as is clear when one looks at the record of plant and animal fossils.
To retain our cultural identity in the modern world and sensibly think about the future, we need to thoroughly study the past,” says Prof. Marek Figlerowicz from the PAS Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, who leads the project “The Dynasty and Society of Piast-Era Poland in the Light of Integrated Historical, Anthropological, and Genomic Research.”