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Abstract

The book The Secondhand Time completes the artistic-documentary cycle of works The Voices of Utopia by S. Aleksievich, a Russian-speaking Belarusian author. Like her other books, it actualizes, in her own words, “the genre of human voices, confessions, testimonies and documents of a human soul”. Unlike Western documentary writers whose works oppose the artistic world by undressing and desacralizing it, S. Aleksievich, by following the traditions of the Russian literature, strives to preserve the sacred in her material, oftentimes introducing the artistic and esthetic elements. The article analyzes the tools that the author uses in her book, such as selecning facts and documents, alternating “voices”, editing them, including other sources in the text, moving from location to locatoin, explicit and implicit depiction of conscience, psychology of interlocutors, accentuating basic elements in monologues and remarks, allusions, reminiscences, etc. The conclusion evaluates artistic value of this work.
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Abstract

The names of wives in Belarusian Narew dialects were most often formed from the husband’s name using the formatives -iχa, -ča and -ka. These forms were neutral in the past, and the formatives in questions were a maritonymic indicator. During the post-war period, particularly in the nineteen-seventies, a tendency for the gradual disappearance of wives’ names with the formatives -iχa, -ča and -ka was observed. The names of this type now refer almost exclusively to old women. They are used by persons of the oldest generation. In this usage, the names in question retain their maritonymic function and a neutral tinge. The names of wives with the formatives -iχa, -ča and -ka, used to refer to old women by young or middle-aged people, usually have an augmentative-pejorative or jocular- ironic connotation. The names of this type are gradually becoming functionally close to nicknames. What is conducive to the process is without doubt the archaic form of the names in question. The archaization of the traditional names of wives with the formatives -iχa, -ča and -ka is accompanied by the distinct activation, infl uenced by the Polish language, of maritonymic f Keywords: Białystok region, Narewka village and its vicinity, peripheral Belarusian dialects, mari-tonymic forms with the formative -iχa, -ča and -ka, disappearance and change of function Narewka village and its ormatives -ova, -ava, and partly -ina, -yna.
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Abstract

In the article there are presented the most popular Jewish names selected from the municipal books of Grabowiec and fi les of city Grabowiec XVII and XVIII century. As a result of gathered materials it has been found that Jews adapted their names to the patterns existing on the area of residence. The formant –ko was especially popular. That formant was the most popular in Ukrainian antroponymy: Heszko, Icko, Judko, Lewko. To the most popular names used by Jews as Icko (17), Lewko (11), Marko (5), Moszko (4) the names of the origin of the Bible: Dawid (6), Juda (5), Aron (4), Boruch (3), Hebraic: Jakub (9), Chaim (5), Maier (4), Yiddish: Leyba (6), Zusman (3). can be added. Frequencies complement the variants of the specifi c names.
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Abstract

The authors presented the tendencies in Russian toponomy after the October Revolution, when geographic naming became one of the most important tools of communist propaganda. They showed – following A. Supieranska – three groups of oekokonyms in the 1920s and 30s: 1) those derived from the names of individuals who had achieved renown (e.g. Ленинакан, Ленинск, Лениногорск, Ленинабад, Троцк, Киров), 2) those commemorating phenomena and events linked with the Revolution and the era of Soviet rule (e.g. Комсомольск-на-Амуре, Красногвардейск), 3) those referring to areas of production (e.g. Асбест, Бокситогорск, Магнитогорск, Электросталь). In this context, changes in the naming of towns inhabited by Germans are presented, in particular Marx and Engels, located in the Volga Region. The presentation of the changes is preceeded by a description of the development of the oekonymic system of Volga Germans.
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Abstract

Balmont’s only contribution to Russian Symbolist Drama is discussed in the forthcoming article as an attempt of quitting narcissistic “lyrical solitude”, which parallels Blok’s situation upon staging the play Balaganchik. Motifs of the mythologeme of Narcissus scattered all over Balmont’s poetry and prose, given narcissistic features of his individual character seem to reinforce that a subtle decoding of the myth as a sujet of semiosis, constitutes one of the chief constructive principles of the play. By means of contrasting allusions to the Blue Flower of Novalis Balmont accentuates metamorphosis via dematerialisation and transmutation coded in the myth. The pattern of colour and fl oral imagery juxtaposing the complementary yellow and blue is meant to reveal the harmony of universal correspondences shown through the omnipresent principle of the Eternal Feminine.
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Abstract

The subject of the article is interaction of Russian hand-written rhymes and oral paremiae in XVII–XVIII centuries. The interplay between the literature and oral genres bases on the unity of motifs, characters and topoi as well as folk beliefs and stereotypes.
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Abstract

Taking as a starting point Vyacheslav Ivanov’s poem Eden – the epilogue of the 5th book of “metaphysical lyric poetry” Rosarium as well as his critical and philosophical works – the article proposes a culturological interpretation of the key topoi of the poet’s artistic thought: his poetic anthropology. The principal point in these considerations is conceptualisation of the category of paradise/Eden in Ivanov’s writings and the notion of happiness as “metaphysical and religious feeling” connected with a person’s spiritual life in its vertical dimension (relation man – three-personed God). Moreover, the article presents intertextual relationships between Ivanov’s poetry and cultural texts (St Augustine, Petrarch, and others) being the source of European understanding of the concepts: soul, memory, oblivion, paradise.
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Abstract

Energy from different sources is fundamental to the economy of each country. Bearing in mind the limited reserves of non-renewable energy sources and the fact that their production from new deposits is becoming less economically viable, attention is paid to alternative energy sources, particularly those that are readily available or require no substantial financial investment. One possible solution may be to generate hydrogen, which will then be used for heat (energy) production using other methods. At the same time, these processes will be characterized by low emission levels compared to conventional energy sources. In recent years, more and more emphasis has been placed on the use of clean energy from renewable sources. New, more technically and economically efficient technologies are being developed. The energy use worldwide comes mostly from fossil fuel processing. It can be observed that the share of RES in global production is growing every year. At the end of the 1990s, the share of renewable energy sources was at 6–7%. Global trends indicate the increasing demand for renewable energy due to its form. Global hydrogen resources are practically inexhaustible, but the problem is its availability in molecular form. The article analyzed the use of hydrogen as a fuel. The basic problem is the inexpensive and easy extraction of hydrogen from its compounds; attention has been paid to water, which can easily be electrolytically decomposed to produce oxygen and hydrogen. Hydrogen generated by electrolysis can be stored, but due to its physicochemical properties, it is a costly process; therefore, a decision was made that it is better to store it with natural gas or use it for further reaction. In addition, hydrogen can be used as a substrate for binding and converting the increasingly problematic carbon dioxide, thus reducing its content in the atmosphere.
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Abstract

Na przestrzeni ostatniej dekady zauważalne są zmiany w strukturze zużycia energii pierwotnej w krajach UE. Jedną z najistotniejszych zmian jest rosnący udział przypadający na odnawialne źródła energii (OZE). Wzrost udziału OZE wynika między innymi z prowadzonej polityki mającej na celu zmniejszenie emisji gazów cieplarnianych. W osiągnieciu zamierzonych celów wykorzystywane są te nośniki energii, których wpływ na środowisko przyrodnicze jest jak najmniejszy, do takich paliw zaliczany jest gaz ziemny. Udział tego paliwa w bilansie energetycznym UE w analizowanym okresie, tj. od 2006 do 2016 r., utrzymuje się na względnie stałym poziomie. Natomiast w przypadku poszczególnych państw jego udział w bilansie energetycznym jest uzależniony od specyfiki danego państwa. Bez względu na udział gazu ziemnego w strukturze zużycia energii poszczególnych państw, dążą one do dywersyfikacji dostaw gazu ziemnego. Jednym z głównych elementów dywersyfikacji dostaw gazu ziemnego jest budowa terminali regazyfikacyjnych LNG. Z uwagi na fakt, że wzrasta ilość państw, które zainteresowane są eksportem gazu ziemnego w formie LNG, wzrasta także zainteresowanie odbiorem tego gazu przez państwa uzależnione od jego importu. W artykule przedstawiono stopień wykorzystania terminali regazyfikacyjnych LNG w Europie w okresie od 2012 do stycznia 2018 roku. Scharakteryzowano również terminal LNG w Świnoujściu, stopień jego wykorzystania oraz plany rozbudowy. Europa posiada znaczne możliwości importu gazu ziemnego poprzez terminale LNG, jednak do tej pory wykorzystywane one były w ograniczonym zakresie, świadczyć to może o tym, że oprócz zadań dywersyfikacyjnych terminale stanowią zabezpieczenie na wypadek przerw w dostawach gazu przy użyciu gazociągów.
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Abstract

Salt stress causes severe reduction in the growth and yield of rice plants. The ability to maintain cellular ion homeostasis is of importance to help the plant survive under salt stress. Salt overly sensitive 1 (SOS1), a plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter, has been proven to play critical roles in Na+ exclusion out of the cell, hence contributing to salt tolerance in plants. In this study, we analyzed the natural nucleotide polymorphisms occuring within the entire coding sequence as well as the upstream region of the OsSOS1 gene by comparing the sequences of two contrasting rice genotypes, namely, Nipponbare (salt-sensitive) and Pokkali (salt-resistant). In total, six nucleotide polymorphisms were identified in the coding sequence, and 44 nucleotide substitutions, 225-bp-insertion and 65-bp-deletion were observed in the upstream region of the OsSOS1 gene. Futher in silico analysis revealed that two out of six nucleotide polymorphisms in the coding sequence were non-synonymous (A1600G, G2204A) which led to two amino acid substitutions (T534A, S735N, respectively) positioned in the C-terminal domain of OsSOS1 transporter, but caused no effect on protein properties. In the upstream region of OsSOS1 gene, 44 single nucleotide polymorphisms and two INDELs were identified, in which nucleotide substitutions at position -1392, -1389, -822, -583, +57 and an insertion at position -1035 caused change in cis-regulatory elements. Analysis of OsSOS1 expression revealed that salt induced the expression of the gene in the roots, but not in the leaves in both investigated rice cultivars.
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Abstract

The major aim of the study was to identify the relationships of photosynthetic pigments with elemental contents of plants exposed to various ambient air conditions. Lolium multiflorum L. plants were exposed at five sites varying in environmental characteristics, including potential air pollution levels. The effect of air pollution by trace elements on plants was examined. Selected trace elements (Pb, Cd, As, Ni, Cr), some macro-elements as well as chlorophyll content were measured after each of four series. The graphical visualization revealed groups of sites with similar response of elements and chlorophyll contents. Sites located outside the city were grouped into one, and two urban sites were grouped into another. The trace element contents were relatively low and, excluding Ni and As, did not reach toxic levels in dry mass of leaves. However, some relations could be noted, which indicates the sensitivity of the photosynthetic process even at low levels of trace elements in ambient air. Chlorophyll b was found to be more sensitive to most of the analyzed trace elements than chlorophyll a. The results revealed chlorophylls, K and Na as indicators of plant stress caused by trace elements present in ambient air, even at relatively low levels.
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Abstract

Exposure of green algae Chlorella vulgaris to short-term UV-B radiation (280 nm – 315 nm) induced several changes in the function of photosystem II (PS II) studied by means of chlorophyll fluorescence (FL) and oxygen evolving. The intensity of photosynthetic oxygen evolving intensity of algae suspension decreased in a similar way to the FL parameter values in proportion to the applied dose of UV-B radiation (0.0, 3.2, 6.4, 12.8 kJ·m-2). The correlation between photosynthetic oxygen evolving intensity and FV/FO ratio was better than that between photosynthetic oxygen evolving intensity and FV/FM. The vitality index (Rfd) in the UV-B irradiated algae strongly decreased, compared to the control, which indicates inhibition of potential CO2 fixation and cooperation between light and dark reactions of photosynthesis. It may indicate damage of Rubisco.
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Abstract

During the research interaction of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and methyl jasmonate (JA-Me) in epinasty and/or hyponasty, as well as petiole growth of Bryophyllum calycinum were investigated. Exogenously applied IAA as a lanolin paste was extremely effective to induce epinasty and/or hyponasty accompanied with petiole elongation in intact B. calycinum. Application of IAA around or to the upper side of the petiole was much more effective than that to the lower side, suggesting that petiole epidermal cells on the adaxial side of B. calycinum are more sensitive and/or susceptive to IAA than those on the abaxial one. This is supported by the fact that not only the second curvature but also the first one in B. calycinum was enhanced by application of IAA to the upper side of the petiole. The degree of epinasty and/or hyponasty induced by IAA is strongly related to the increase of petiole growth. On the other hand, JA-Me significantly inhibited IAA-inducing epinasty and/or hyponasty, and petiole growth in intact B. calycinum. When detached leaves with petioles were placed leaf blade face down, clear petiole bending was observed. However, no petiole bending was found when detached leaves were placed leaf blade face up. Exogenously applied IAA to petioles was significantly effective to induce and/or stimulate petiole bending in placing detached leaves of B. calycinum face down but ethephon was not, suggesting that transport and/or movement of endogenous auxin produced in the leaf blade are necessary to induce petiole bending in detached leaves of B. calycinum and that ethylene derived from exogenously applied IAA does not play an important role in epinasty and/or hyponasty, and petiole bending in B. calycinum. The mechanisms of IAA-enhancing and JA-Me-inhibiting epinasty and/or hyponasty, and petiole growth are intensively discussed.
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Abstract

The present work deals with population-based meiotic studies on eight species belonging to four genera of the family Commelinaceae from different regions of Kangra Valley which is well known for its rich floristic diversity. At the world level, different cytotypes for four species such as Commelina hasskarlii (2n = 22, 60), C. kurzii (2n = 60), Murdannia nudiflora (2n = 24) and M. spirata (2n = 24) have been recorded for the first time at various ploidy levels. Additionally, from India, the new chromosome count for Tradescantia pallida (2n = 24) has been reported at the tetraploid level. The course of meiosis has been found to be normal in all the populations of Commelina benghalensis, C. paludosa, Murdannia nudiflora and M. spirata while four species, Commelina hasskarlii, C. kurzii, Cyanotis cristata and Tradescantia pallida have shown a normal to abnormal meiotic course in different populations. These meiotic abnormalities have revealed a clear effect on the pollen size and pollen fertility.
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Abstract

Hordeum murinum L. is a polyploid complex of thermophilic, annual, zoochoric grasses of Mediterranean–Irano- Turanian origin that is commonly present in Europe. H. murinum complex includes three annual and most often autogamous taxa: glaucum, leporinum and murinum. The variation of nuclear microsatellites, chloroplast microsatellites and chloroplast SNP-based PCR-RFLP markers of H. murinum from Europe was analyzed in order to investigate its migration. The chloroplast markers revealed three distinct haplotypes. Two of them are characteristic of leporinum and murinum. A geographical pattern of haplotypes has been detected, however it does not correspond to the known patterns of migration routes in the Holocene. Geographic distribution of genotypes defined by nuclear microsatellites has shown a geographic trend that may link the migration of leporinum and murinum with the spread of Neolithic agriculture in Europe. This study also confirms genetic distinction of glaucum, as well as genetic uniformity of murinum and leporinum.
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Abstract

Holoparasitic genera within the family Orobanchaceae are characterized by greatly reduced vegetative organs; therefore, molecular analysis has proved to be a useful tool in solving taxonomic problems in this family. For this purpose, we studied all species of the genera Orobanche and Phelipanche occurring in Central Europe, specifically in Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Austria, supplemented by samples mainly from Spain, France, Germany, and Ukraine. They were investigated using nuclear sequences (ITS region) and a plastid trnLtrnF region. The aim of this study was to examine phylogenetic relationships within Orobanche and Phelipanche from Central Europe; we focused on problematic species and aggregates, recent taxonomic changes in these (rank and secondary ranks), and host ranges. The most interesting results concern the exlusion of O. mayeri from O. alsatica aggr. Additionally, following the rules of traditional taxonomy, the correct names and types of some secondary ranks are given and, as a result of this, a new combination below the Phelipanche genus is made (P. sect. Trionychon). The host ranges of the investigated species in Central Europe include 102 species from 12 families, most often from Asteraceae. For this purpose, ca. 400 localities were examined in the field. Moreover, data acquired from the literature and European and Asian herbaria were used.
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