The present work aims at studying the effects of orientation, size, position, and the combination of multiple internal diathermal obstructions in a fluid-saturated square porous enclosure, generally encountered in thermal insulations. The overall objective is to suppress the natural convection fluid flow and heat transfer across a differentially heated porous enclosure. To serve this purpose, multiple diathermal obstructions are employed to mechanically protrude into a porous medium. It is sought to estimate the effect of various types of orientation, clustering and alternate positioning of obstructions by considering number of obstructions (Np), length of obstructions (λ), modified Rayleigh number (Ra*) on local and average Nusselt number (Nu). The Darcy model for porous media is solved using Finite difference method along with Successive Accelerated Replacement scheme. One of the findings is that the value of the Nusselt number decreases by increasing both, the number of obstructions as well as the length of obstructions irrespective of its orientation and positioning. The reduction in Nusselt number is significant with obstructions attached on lower half of the hot wall and/or on upper half of cold wall. In addition, the overall reduction in Nusselt number is slightly greater with obstructions attached explicitly to the cold wall.
The development of industry is determined by the use of modern materials in the production of parts and equipment. In recent years, there has been a significant increase in the use of nickel-based superalloys in the aerospace, energy and space industries. Due to their properties, these alloys belong to the group of materials hard-to-machine with conventional methods. One of the non-conventional manufacturing technologies that allow the machining of geometrically complex parts from nickel-based superalloys is electrical discharge machining. The article presents the results of experimental investigations of the impact of EDM parameters on the surfaces roughness and the material removal rate. Based on the results of empirical research, mathematical models of the EDM process were developed, which allow for the selection of the most favourable processing parameters for the expected values of the surface roughness Sa and the material removal rate.
To study the impact of suspended equipment on the ride comfort in a railway vehicle, a rigid flexible general model of such a vehicle is required. The numerical simulations is based on two different models, derived from the general model of the vehicle, namely a reference model of a vehicle with no equipment, and another model with six suspended elements of equipment mounted in various positions along the carbody. The objective of this paper arises from the observation that the literature does not contain any study that highlights the change in the ride comfort resulting exclusively due to the influence of equipment. The influence of the suspended equipment on the ride comfort is determined by comparing the ride comfort indices calculated in the carbody reference points, at the centre and above the two bogies, for a model with six elements of equipment and a model of the vehicle with no equipment.
The functionality of a prosthesis is determined by clinical procedures, the manufacturing technology applied, the material used and its strength parameters. The aim of the paper is to evaluate the static strength and fatigue strength of acrylic construction materials directly after the process of polymerisation and for aged materials. It has been confirmed that the deformation speed of the tested materials has an evident impact on their mechanical characteristics. With greater deformation speed, a consistent increase in the material elasticity was observed in static compression tests, which was accompanied by a reduction in engineering stresses at the final stage of deformation. The greatest fatigue strength was observed for Vertex. It was by about 33% greater than the strength of Villacryl – the material that has the lowest fatigue properties. The resistance of acrylic polymers to cyclic loading applied with the frequency of 1 Hz may become an indication for the selection of the material to be used in the clinical procedures in which a patient is provided with full dentures.
The performance of majority engineering systems made of composite laminates can be improved by increasing strength to weight ratio. Variable thickness approach (VTA), in discrete form, used in this study is capable of finding minimum laminate thickness in one stage only, instead of two stage methodology defined by other researchers, with substantial accuracy for the given load conditions. This minimum required laminate thickness can be used by designers in multiple ways. Current study reveals that effectiveness of VTA in this regard depends on ply thickness increment value and number of plies. Maximum Stress theory, Tsai Wu theory and Tsai Hill theory are used as constraints, while ply angles, ply thicknesses and number of plies in discrete form are used as design variables in current simulation studies. Optimization is carried out using direct value coded genetic algorithm. The effect of design variables such as ply angles, ply thicknesses and number of plies in discrete form on optimum solution is investigated considering Uniform Thickness Approach (UTA) and Variable Thickness Approach (VTA) for various load cases.
The central theme of this work was to analyze high aspect ratio structure having structural nonlinearity in low subsonic flow and to model nonlinear stiffness by finite element-modal approach. Total stiffness of high aspect ratio wing can be decomposed to linear and nonlinear stiffnesses. Linear stiffness is modeled by its eigenvalues and eigenvectors, while nonlinear stiffness is calculated by the method of combined Finite Element-Modal approach. The nonlinear modal stiffness is calculated by defining nonlinear static load cases first. The nonlinear stiffness in the present work is modeled in two ways, i.e., based on bending modes only and based on bending and torsion modes both. Doublet lattice method (DLM) is used for dynamic analysis which accounts for the dependency of aerodynamic forces and moments on the frequency content of dynamic motion. Minimum state rational fraction approximation (RFA) of the aerodynamic influence coefficient (AIC) matrix is used to formulate full aeroelastic state-space time domain equation. Time domain dynamics analyses show that structure behavior becomes exponentially growing at speed above the flutter speed when linear stiffness is considered, however, Limit Cycle Oscillations (LCO) is observed when linear stiffness along with nonlinear stiffness, modeled by FE-Modal approach is considered. The amplitude of LCO increases with the increase in the speed. This method is based on cantilevered configuration. Nonlinear static tests are generated while wing root chord is fixed in all degrees of freedom and it needs modification if one requires considering full aircraft. It uses dedicated commercial finite element package in conjunction with commercial aeroelastic package making the method very attractive for quick nonlinear aeroelastic analysis. It is the extension of M.Y. Harmin and J.E. Cooper method in which they used the same equations of motion and modeled geometrical nonlinearity in bending modes only. In the current work, geometrical nonlinearities in bending and in torsion modes have been considered.
The paper presents a new method of lifetime calculations of steam turbine components operating at high temperatures. Component life is assessed on the basis of creep-fatigue damage calculated using long-term operating data covering the whole operating period instead of representative events only. The data are analysed automatically by a dedicated computer program developed to handle big amount of process data. Lifetime calculations are based on temperature and stress analyses performed by means of finite element method and using automatically generated input files with thermal and mechanical boundary conditions. The advanced lifetime assessment method is illustrated by an example of lifetime calculations of a steam turbine rotor.
A better understanding of phosphorus distribution in slag is necessary to develop an effective way to treat dephosphorization slag formed during steelmaking. Here, previous studies on the enrichment, separation, and recovery of phosphorus from dephosphorization slag are reviewed, along with their influencing factors. The results suggest that a proper heat treatment can promote the selective enrichment and growth of P-rich phases. Further, adding P2O5 and FetO facilitates phosphorus enrichment. Also, Ca3(PO4)2 is precipitated from slag containing 18 wt% P2O5. MnO and MgO in the slag barely affect the phosphorus recovery. In contrast, the addition of Al2O3 and TiO2 significantly affects phosphorus enrichment and magnetic separation. A phosphorus recovery rate of more than 70% is achieved with the addition of 10 wt% Al2O3 or 10 wt% TiO2. New phases (Na2Ca4(PO4)2SiO4, Na3PO4, and Ca5(PO4)3F) tend to be formed on the addition of Na2O and CaF2, which promote phosphorus enrichment. However, the addition of Na2O and CaF2 results in the incomplete separation of phosphorus and iron, as CaF2 and Na2O improve slag metallization and the magnetism of iron-rich phases.
Internal structure of metal foams is one of the most important factors that determine its mechanical properties. There exists a number of methods for studying the nature of the inner porous structure. Unfortunately most of these processes is destructive and therefore it is not possible to reuse the sample. From this point of view, as a suitable method seems to be the ability of using the so-called X-ray microtomography (also micro-CT). This is a non-destructive methodology used in a number of fields (industry, science, archaeology, medicine) for a description of the material distribution in the space (e.g. pores, fillers, defects, etc.). In principle, this technology works on different absorption of X-ray radiation by materials with changing proton number. The contribution was worked out in collaboration with experts from the Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science of the VŠB-Technical University of Ostrava and it is focused on the analysis of internal structure of the metal foam casting with irregular arrangement of internal pores by using micro-CT. The obtained data were evaluated in the commercial software VGStudio MAX 2.2 and in the FOTOMNG system. For the evaluation of these data a new specialized module was introduced in this system. Several methods of pre-processing the image was prepared for the measurement. This preliminary processing consists, for example, from a binary image thresholding for better diversity between the internal porosity and the material itself or functions for colour inversion.
The paper analyzes the effect of ageing on the variations in the mechanical and technological properties of steel wire. The process of drawing 5.5 mm-diameter wire rod into 1.70 mm wire was carried out in 12 draws on a Koch KGT multi-stage drawing machine in the drawing velocity range of 5-25 m/s. Finished 1.7 mm-diameter wires after, respectively, 1, 24, 720 and 8760 hours of the completion of the drawing process were subjected to testing to determine their mechanical and technological properties. The yield strength, YS; tensile strength, UTS; uniform elongation, Ar; total elongation, Ac; reduction of area, Z; number of twists, Nt; and the number of bends, Nb, have been determined. It has been demonstrated that variations in mechanical properties occur after the multi-stage drawing process due to ageing, with their degree and mode being dependent on the drawing speed.
The effects of Mg and Ca on sulfide modification of sulphur steel were studied to elucidate the difference between micromagnesium treatment and micro-calcium treatment for the inclusion of sulphur steel. The results show that the inclusions in the steel appeared with an oxide core of Al2O3 and MnS wrapped. After the addition of Mg, the core was changed to spinel, and the MnS coating was changed to Mn-Mg-S. After Ca was added, the core was changed to Ca-Al-O, and the MnS coating was changed to Mn-Ca-S. The Mg content was higher than Ca content in the sulfides of the steel. Therefore, Mg was more effective than Ca in terms of sulfide modification with the same content of Mg and Ca in steel, but the yielding rate of Mg was lower than that of Ca. The Mg content in the oxide core was higher than Mg of the coating of the inclusions in the steel treated with Mg or Mg-Ca. In contrast, the Ca content in the oxide core was lower than Ca of the coating of the inclusions in the steel treated with Ca or Mg-Ca. MnS formed and precipitated during the melt solidification process. The complex sulfide (Mg-Mn-S) was precipitated around MgO·Al2O3 in the Mg treated steel during the cooling process. CaS inclusion was precipitated on the CaO·Al2O3 inclusions in the liquid Ca-treated steel. Thus, CaS was formed first, whereas MnS was formed during the cooling process, followed by the formation of complex sulfide (CaS+MnS), which finally precipitated around CaO·Al2O3 in the Ca-treated steel.
Ceramic injection moulding and gas pressure infiltration were employed for the manufacturing of alumina/AlSi10Mg composites. Porous ceramic preforms were prepared by mixing alumina powder with a multi-binder system and injection moulding of the powder polymer slurry. Then, the organic part was removed through a combination of solvent and thermal debinding, and the materials were finally sintered at different temperatures. The ceramic preforms manufactured in this way were infiltrated by an AlSi10Mg alloy. The microstructure and properties of the manufactured materials were examined using scanning electron microscopy, mercury porosimetry and bending strength testing. The results of transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy observations show that the fabricated composite materials are characterised by the percolation type of the microstructure and a lack of unfilled pores with good cohesion at the metal-ceramic interfaces. This is surprising considering that over 30% of the pores are smaller than 1 μm. The results show that the bending strength of the obtained composites decreased with increasing sintering temperature of the porous preforms.
Twinned dendrites in Al-Zn alloy with high Zn content (40% wt.%) were successfully prepared by directional solidification. At different directional solidification rates (1000 and 1500 μm/s), microstructures and growth orientation variations of Al twinned dendrite and non-twinned dendrite were characterized. By using the inverted trapezoidal graphite sleeve at 1000 μm/s, Al twinned dendrite were formed to developed feather crystal structures in longitudinal section. Its primary and secondary twinned dendrite were grew along  direction. Moreover the deviation angle between  direction of Al twinned dendrite and the heat flow direction was about 27.15°. While not using the inverted trapezoidal graphite sleeve at 1000 and 1500 μm/s, Al dendrite was the non-twinned dendrite and the twinned dendrite was not appeared. The experimental results showed that the higher temperature gradient, a certain pulling rate and convection environment were the formation conditions of twinned dendrites.
Currently is the biggest problem of metallurgical companies the increase of fossil fuel prices and strict environmental regulations. As a result of this, companies must look for alternatives that would reduce the amount of fossil fuels and reduce emissions. Wood sawdust has huge energy potential, which can be used in the process of agglomerate production. This type of energy is locally available, has some similar properties as fossil fuels and is economically advantageous. For these reasons, experimental study using laboratory agglomeration pan was realized to study the possibility of agglomerate production with a mixed fuel. Experimental results show the viability of mixed fuel use in the agglomeration process, but also show significant possibility for improvement. The maximum acceptable substitution ratio, which corresponds to qualitatively suitable agglomerate is 20% of pine sawdust. Based on the realized experiments and the obtained results we have acceded to the intensification of the agglomeration process with an objective to increase the amount of added substitution fuel while maintaining the required quality of agglomerate.
The rolls for the hot rolling finishing stands are cast centrifugally as two or three-layer rolls. The working layer is called a shell. The material of the shell is selected according to the position of the respective roll in the final finishing stand of the rolling mill. Typically, a combination of rolls made of a high-chromium cast iron + indefinite cast iron or high-speed steel + indefinite cast iron is commonly used. Great attention has been paid to indefinite cast iron in recent years and this material received a number of modifications that led to the increase of material properties up to 20% in comparison to the ordinary indefinite cast iron. But the goals of the new generation of material for hot rollers were chosen higher: increasing of production about 30% and more. This material has specific physical properties, heat treatment requirements as well as rolling mill requirements as is stated in the paper. It is expected that introduction of this material will reduce the difference between wear of the front and finishing stands, which can extend rolling campaigns and have a positive effect on the reduction rolls exchanges, the grinding of the rolls and the reduction of downtime.
Blast furnace and cupola furnace are furnace aggregates used for pig iron and cast iron production. Both furnace aggregates work on very similar principles: they use coke as the fuel, charge goes from the top to down, the gases flow against it, etc. Their construction is very similar (cupola furnace is usually much smaller) and the structures of pig iron and cast iron are very similar too. Small differences between cast iron and pig iron are only in carbon and silicon content. The slags from blast furnace and cupola furnace are very similar in chemical composition, but blast furnace slag has a very widespread use in civil engineering, primarily in road construction, concrete and cement production, and in other industries, but the cupola furnace slag utilization is minimal. The contribution analyzes identical and different properties of both kinds of slags, and attempts to explain the differences in their uses. They are compared by the contribution of the blast furnace slag cooled in water and on air, and cupola furnace slag cooled on air and granulated in water. Their chemical composition, basicity, hydraulicity, melting temperature and surface were compared to explain the differences in their utilization.
The work deals with possibilities of using this specific material. It is focused on cast metal foams with a regular arrangement of internal cells and it refers to already used casting technologies – the production of metal foamswith the aid of sand cores. Metal foamsare used in many industries, such as: automotive, aerospace, construction, power engineering. They have unique propertiesand due to lower weight with sufficient strength and greater contact surface can be used, for example, for the conduction of heat. This article deals with the useof the metal foam as a heat exchanger. The efficiency of the heat exchanger depends on its shape and size and therefore the study is focused first on the optimization of the shape before the proper manufacture.
The paper deals with the influence of manganese in AlSi7Mg0.3 alloy with higher iron content. Main aim is to eliminate harmful effect of intermetallic – iron based phases. Manganese in an alloy having an iron content of about 0.7 wt. % was graded at levels from 0.3 to 1.4 wt. %. In the paper, the effect of manganese is evaluated with respect to the resulting mechanical properties, also after the heat treatment (T6). Morphology of the excluded intermetallic phases and the character of the crystallisation of the alloy was also evaluated. From the obtained results it can be concluded that the increasing level of manganese in the alloy leads to an increase in the temperature of the β-Al5FeSi phase formation and therefore its elimination. Reducing the amount of β-Al5FeSi phase in the structure results in an improvement of the mechanical properties (observed at levels of 0.3 to 0.8 wt. % Mn). The highest addition of Mn (1.4 wt.%) leads to a decrease in the temperature corresponding to the formation of eutectic silicon, which has a positive influence on the structure, but at the same time the negative sludge particles were also present
The paper deals with squeeze casting technology. For this research a direct squeeze casting method has been chosen. The influence of process parameters variation (casting temperature, mold temperature, pressure) on mechanical properties and structure will be observed. The thicknesses of the individual walls were selected based on the use of preferred numbers and series of preferred numbers (STN ISO 17) with the sequence of 3.15, 4.00, 5.00, 6.00 and 8.00 mm. The width of each wall was 22 mm with a length of 100 mm. As an experimental material was chosen the AlSi12 and AlSi7Mg0.3 alloys. The mechanical properties (UTS, E) for individual casting parameters and their individual areas of different thicknesses were evaluated. In the structure the influence of pressure on the change of the eutectic morphology, the change of the volume of eutectic and the primary alpha phase, the effect of the pressure on the more fine-grain and the regularization of the structure were evaluated.
Detailed studies of the movement of liquid steel (hydrodynamics) on a real object are practically impossible. The solution to this problem are physical modelling carried out on water models and numerical modelling using appropriate programs. The method of numerical modelling thanks to the considerable computing power of modern computers gives the possibility of solving very complex problems. The paper presents the results of model tests of liquid flow through tundish. The examined object was model of the twonozzle tundish model. The ANSYS Fluent program was used to describe the behavior of liquid in the working area of the tundish model. Numerical simulations were carried out using two numerical methods of turbulence description: RANS (Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes) – model k-ε and LES (Large Eddy Simulation). The results obtained from CFD calculations were compared with the results obtained using the water model.
The subject of the study are alumina foams produced by gelcasting method. The results of micro-computed tomography of the foam samples are used to create the numerical model reconstructing the real structure of the foam skeleton as well as the simplified periodic open-cell structure models. The aim of the paper is to present a new idea of the energy-based assessment of failure strength under uniaxial compression of real alumina foams of various porosity with use of the periodic structure model of the same porosity. Considering two kinds of cellular structures: the periodic one, for instance of fcc type, and the random structure of real alumina foam it is possible to justify the hypothesis, computationally and experimentally, that the same elastic energy density cumulated in the both structures of the same porosity allows to determine the close values of fracture strength under compression. Application of finite element computations for the analysis of deformation and failure processes in real ceramic foams is time consuming. Therefore, the use of simplified periodic cell structure models for the assessment of elastic moduli and failure strength appears very attractive from the point of view of practical applications.
It is really hard to determine the phenomena occurring during aluminum refining process using argon blowing through the liquid metal in industrial conditions. The solution of such problem is physical modelling. This kind of modelling gives possibility to determine the level of dispersion of the refining gas in liquid metal. Especially in steel metallurgy RTD (Residence Time Distribution) analysis and visualization process with some colour tracer, which can give extra information about time of mixing are very popularly used. Because the modelling research (especially visualization) is pictorial, the research was conducted to check if it is possible to estimate quantitatively impeller working effectiveness basing on determination of the RTD curves. The examined object was model of URO-200 batch refining reactor. The RTD curves was registered and discussed for three different impellers and four different variants of processing parameters (rotary impeller speed: 300-500 rpm, and gas flow rate: 15-20 l·min–1). Additionally, the process of mixing of the inert gas with water as a modelling agent was enabled to be observed due to introduction of colour tracer (KMnO4). Results obtained from both measuring methods were graphically presented, compared and shortly discussed.
Experimental observations of the steel morphology as well as measurements of the solutes concentration in the macro-scale were made on the basis of the vertical cut at the mid-depth of the 15-tons steel forging ingot serially produced in one of the steel plant in Poland. Experimental observations of the morphology accompanied by the measurements of the Peclet Number were also made on the cross-section of the continuously cast brass ingots serially produced in the copper / brass industry in Poland. The performed measurements allowed to work out some maps of the alloying elements segregation for the longitudinal section of the steel static ingot and a Growth Law for the columnar grains formation in the brass ingots. The marginal stability criterion has been applied to the last mentioned development / description. Some suggestions for the micro-segregation measurement mode in the columnar structure are derived.
The post-processing slags containing about 0.8 wt.% of copper were subjected to the treatment of a complex reagent. The chemical composition of the complex reagent has been elaborated and patented in frame of the Grant No. PBS3/A5/45/2015. The slags had an industrial origin and were delivered by the Smelter and Refinery Plant, Głogów, as a product of the direct-to-blister technology performed in the flash furnace assisted by the arc furnace. An agglomeration of copper droplets suspended in the liquid slag, their coagulation, and deposition on the bottom of furnace were observed after the treatment this post-processing slag by the mentioned reagent. The treatment of the post-processing slags by the complex reagent was performed in the arc furnace equipped with some additional electrodes situated at the furnace bottom (additional, in comparison with the arc furnace usually applied in the Smelter and Refinery Plant, Głogów). The behaviour of the copper droplets in the liquid slag within the competition between buoyancy force and gravity was studied from the viewpoint of the required deposition of coagulated copper droplets. The applied complex reagent improves sufficiently the surface free energy of the copper droplets. In the result, the mechanical equilibrium between coagulated copper droplets and surrounding liquid slag is properly modified. Eventually, sufficiently large copper droplets are subjected to a settlement on the furnace bottom according to the requirements. The agglomeration and coagulation of the copper droplets were significantly improved by an optimized tilting of the upper electrodes and even by their rotation. Moreover, the settlement was substantially facilitated and improved by the employment of both upper and lower system of electrodes with the simultaneous substitution of the variable current by the direct current.