The purpose of this two-wave longitudinal study was to investigate cross-lagged relations between sexual attitudes, perception of love and sex, and young adults’ relationship status over a period of one year. The current study tested two hypotheses: the first hypothesis assuming that sexual attitudes, perception of love and sex can be predictive of relationship status after a one-year interval; and the second hypothesis assuming that relationship status at T1 can be predictive of sexual attitudes and perception of love and sex after a one-year interval. Results from 117 Polish young adults (94 females and 23 males) aged 20–33 (M = 21.42, SD = 1.79) indicated that the conviction that sex is no longer as much a part of the relationship as it used to be (i.e., Sex is Declining scale) measured in the first assessment was a significant predictor of relationship status after a one-year interval. Furthermore, sexual attitudes and perception of love and sex at T1 were found to be predictive of sexual attitudes and perception of love and sex at T2. In addition, gender at T1 was predictive of instrumentality at T2, while being female at T1 related to higher instrumentality at T2.
The purpose of this paper is to analyse the silver hoards from 10th century Greater Poland in the context of the Piast “state” formation and try to explain the expansion of Piast rulership and power in relation to the long-distance trade.
When we look at the history of AGH – University of Science and Technology, recognized as one of the best universities in the country, we find that for that success many people worked for several dozen years. However, the subjects, the methodology and directions of their work were shaped by units – outstanding personalities of science. Just to mention, among others Professors Stanisław Zuber, Władysław Takliński, Witold Budryk, Maksymilian Tytus Huber and Władysław Bogusz. These people have shaped our institution, marked its new path of development and permanent place in the history of Polish and world science. To belong to such a group is a great ennoblement, for which one works out for his entire life. Undoubtedly, such personality was also Professor Zbigniew Witold Engel, to whom we said goodbye on November, 6th, 2013, in the St. Clement’s church in Wieliczka. Professor was born on April 1, 1933, in Zawady near Zhovkva in the province of Lviv. After graduating from Jan Matejko Middle and High School in Wieliczka in 1950 earned a matriculation certificate. Then he began his studies at the Department of Communications of Polytechnic Departments of Academy of Mining and Metallurgy and involved with our university for the next 63 years. October 1, 1952 the Department of Mechanics of the University of Mining and Metallurgy was created, and soon after began professor’s adventure that was the work of science, education and organization. The history and fate of our university are inextricably linked with the person of professor who practically since the very beginning of the Faculty supported it in all areas of its activities, and has always actively participated in academic life.
Potential sources of rare earth elements are sought after in the world by many researchers. Coal ash obtained at high temperatures (HTA ) is considered among these sources. The aim of the study was an evaluation of the suitability of the high temperature ash (HTA ) formed during the combustion of bituminous coal from the Ruda beds of the Pniówek coal mine as an potential resource of REY . The 13 samples of HTA obtained from the combustion of metabituminous (B) coal were analyzed. The analyses showed that the examined HTA samples varied in their chemical composition. In accordance with the chemical classification of HTA , the analyzed ash samples were classified as belonging to the following types: sialic, sialocalcic, sialoferricalcic, calsialic, fericalsialic, ferisialic. The research has shown that the rare earth elements content (REY ) in examined HTA samples are characterized by high variability. The average REY content in the analyzed ashes was 2.5 times higher than the world average (404 ppm). Among rare earth elements, the light elements (LREY ) were the most abundant. Heavy elements (HREY ) had the lowest share. A comparison of the content of the individual rare earth elements in HTA samples and in UCC showed that it was almost 20 times higher than in UCC. The distribution patterns of REY plotted for all samples within their entire range were positioned above the reference level and these curves were of the M-H or M-L type. The data presented indicate, that the analyzed ash samples should be regarded as promising REY raw materials. Considering the fact that in 7 out of 13 analyzed ash samples the REY content was higher than 800 ppm, REY recovery from these ashes may prove to be economic.
The impulse noise is agent harmful to health not only in the case of shots from firearms and the explosions of explosive materials. This kind of noise is also present in many workplaces in the industry. The paper presents the results of noise parameters measurements in workplaces where four different die forging hammers were used. The measured values of the C-weighted peak sound pressure level, the A-weighted maximum sound pressure level and A-weighted noise exposure level normalized to an 8 h working day (daily noise exposure level) exceeded the exposure limit values. For example, the highest measured value of the C-weighted peak sound pressure level was 148.9 dB. In this study possibility of the protection of hearing with the use of earplugs or earmuffs was assessed. The measurement method for the measurements of noise parameters under hearing protection devices using an acoustical test fixture instead of testing with the participation of subjects was used. The results of these measurements allows for assessment which of two tested earplugs and two tested earmuffs sufficiently protect hearing of workers in workplaces where forging hammers are used.
The paper presents a concept, a construction, a circuit model and experimental results of the double-rotor induction motor. This type of a motor is to be implemented in the concept of the electromagnetic differential. At the same time it should fulfill the function of differential mechanism and the vehicle drive. One of the motor shafts is coupled to the direction changing mechanical transmission. The windings of the external rotor are powered by slip rings and brushes. The inner rotor has the squirrel-cage windings. The circuit model parameters were calculated based on the 7.5 kW real single-rotor induction motor (2p = 4). Experimental verification of the model was based on comparison between the mentioned single-rotor motor and double-rotor model with the outer rotor blocked. The presented results showed relatively good compliance between the model and real motor.
Obowiązująca dyrektywa IED, a co za tym idzie bardzo rygorystyczne wymagania względem rtęci (Hg) stawiane przez BAT/BREF, zmuszają polską energetykę do poszukiwania nowych wydajnych technologii oczyszczania spalin z gazowych jej form. Obecnie żadne z metod pierwotnych ani wtórych usuwania związków Hg w kraju nie jest w stanie sprostać tym restrykcjom. Wymagań tych nie spełniają nawet powszechnie stosowane metody z wykorzystaniem węgla aktywnego modyfikowanego bromem lub jodem czy też nowoczesne metody stosowane w innych krajach wykorzystujące moduły polimerowe. Związane jest to z dużym zanieczyszczeniem rtęcią paliw kopalnych stosowanych w krajowej energetyce. Dlatego też w ramach projektu pt. „Hybrydowe układy adsorpcyjne do redukcji emisji rtęci z zastosowaniem wysokoefektywnych komponentów polimerowych”, akronim HYBREM, podjęte zostały próby zbudowania innowacyjnej linii technologicznej łączącej kilka technik oczyszczania spalin ze szkodliwych związków rtęci. Do budowy instalacji pilotażowej wykorzystano technologie bazujące na modułach polimerowych oraz iniekcji różnych sorbentów stałych. Zaletą budowanej instalacji będzie jej mobilność, przez co może być testowana na różnych obiektach energetycznych. Otrzymane wyniki oczyszczania spalin przy użyciu zaprojektowanej instalacji pilotażowej pozwolą określić czy zbudowany prototyp jest efektywny w każdych warunkach dla polskich elektrowni opalanych węglem. Wiedza na ten temat pozwoli efektywnie rozwinąć technologie przemysłowe pod kątem oczyszczania spalin z rtęci spełniając jednocześnie wymagania stawiane przez konkluzje BAT/BREF.
This article presents the results of the study of changes in mineral and chemical composition of artificial aggregates consisting of coal shale (a hard coal mining waste) and fluidized ashes. Such an aggregate was used for road construction. After completion of the construction works but before making the road available for public use, significant deformation of the surface in the form of irregular buckling of the asphalt layer occurred. It was excluded that this resulted from mining damage, design errors or performance mistakes, among others. A study of the materials that had been incorporated in the construction layers was undertaken in order to find the component and the mechanism responsible for the buckling of the road surface. A comparison of the mineral and chemical composition of aggregate samples collected from the embankment where the road buckled with the reference sample and samples from places without deformations showed that the bumps in the road embankment consisted of minerals that were not initially present in the aggregate. Wastes produced as a result of high temperatures (slag and power plants ashes, metallurgical wastes) are not as stable in terms of chemical and phase composition in the hypergenic environment. As a result of the processes occurring in the road embankment, anhydrite, which is the primary component of fluidized ashes, was transformed into gypsum and ettringite. As a result of contact with water CaO (present in fluidized ashes) easily changed into calcium hydroxide. As the crystallization of these minerals is expansive, it resulted in the filling of pores and, in extreme cases, in a substantial increase in the volume of the aggregate and, consequently, in the deformation of the road surface.