This paper presents revised and extended version of theory proposed in the late 1970-ties by A. ˇCyras and his co-workers. This theory, based upon the notion of duality in mathematical programming, allows us to generate variational principles and to investigate existence and uniqueness of solutions for the broad class of problems of elasticity and plasticity. The paper covers analysis of solids made of linear elastic, elastic-strain hardening, elastic-perfectly plastic and rigid-perfectly plastic material. The novelty with respect to ˇCyras’s theory lies in taking into account loads dispersed over the volume and displacements enforced on the part of surface. A new interpretation of optimum load for a rigid-perfectly plastic body is also given.
The second part of the paper presents ﬁnite-dimensional models of linear elastic, elastic-strain hardening, elastic-perfectly plastic and rigid-perfectly plastic structures. These models can be seen as a result of discretisation procedure applied to the models of solids derived in the Part I. The implications of sub-dividing degrees of freedom into those with prescribed external forces and those with given displacements are discussed. It is pointed out that the dual energy principles given in this part of the paper can serve as a direct basis for numerical computations.
This paper derives analytical formulas for the systematic errors of the linear interpolated DFT (LIDFT) method when used to estimating multifrequency signal parameters and verifies this analysis using Monte-Carlo simulations. The analysis is performed on the version of the LIDFT method based on optimal approximation of the unit circle by a polygon using a pair of windows. The analytical formulas derived here take the systematic errors in the estimation of amplitude and frequency of component oscillations in the multifrequency signal as the sum of basic errors and the errors caused by each of the component oscillations. Additional formulas are also included to analyze particular quantities such as a signal consisting of two complex oscillations, and the analyses are verified using Monte-Carlo simulations.
This paper presents the general solution of the least-squares approximation of the frequency characteristic of the data window by linear functions combined with zero padding technique. The approximation characteristic can be discontinuous or continuous, what depends on the value of one approximation parameter. The approximation solution has an analytical form and therefore the results have universal character. The paper presents derived formulas, analysis of approximation accuracy, the exemplary characteristics and conclusions, which confirm high accuracy of the approximation. The presented solution is applicable to estimating methods, like the LIDFT method, visualizations, etc.
This paper presents a universal approximation of the unit circle by a polygon that can be used in signal processing algorithms. Optimal choice of the values of three parameters of this approximation allows one to obtain a high accuracy of approximation. The approximation described in the paper has a universal character and can be used in many signal processing algorithms, such as DFT, that use the mathematical form of the unit circle. One of the applications of the described approximation is the DFT linear interpolation method (LIDFT). Applying the results of the presented paper to improve the LIDFT method allows one to significantly decrease the errors in estimating the amplitudes and frequencies of multifrequency signal components. The paper presents the derived formulas, an analysis of the approximation accuracy and the region of best values for the approximation parameters.
The paper presents a novel method for the 3D shaping of different materials using a high-pressure abrasive water jet and a flat target image. For steering the process of movement of the jet, a principle similar to raster image way of record and readout was used. However, respective colors of pixels in such a bitmap are connected with adequate jet feed rate that causes erosion of material with adequate depth. Thanks to that innovation, one can observe spatial imaging of the object. Theoretical basis as well as spatial model of material shaping and experimental stand including steering program are presented in the paper. There are also presented methodic and some experimental erosion results, as well as practical example of object's bas-relief made of metal.
In the recent years three-dimensional buildings modelling based on an raw air- borne laser scanning point clouds, became an important issue. A significant step towards 3D modelling is buildings segmentation in laser scanning data. For this purpose an algorithm, based on the multi-resolution analysis in wavelet domain, is proposed in the paper. The proposed method concentrates only on buildings, which have to be segmented. All other objects and terrain surface have to be removed. The algorithm works on gridded data. The wavelet-based segmentation proceeds in the following main steps: wavelet decomposition up to appropriately chosen level, thresholding on the chosen and adjacent levels, removal of all coefficients in the so-called influence pyramid and wavelet reconstruction. If buildings on several scaling spaces have to be segmented, the procedure should be applied iteratively. The wavelet approach makes the procedure very fast. However, the limitation of the proposed procedure is its scale-based distinction between objects to be segmented and the rest.
The paper presents a summary of research activities concerning theoretical geodesy performed in Poland in the period of 2011–2014. It contains the results of research on new methods of the parameter estimation, a study on robustness properties of the M-estimation, control network and deformation analysis, and geodetic time series analysis. The main achievements in the geodetic parameter estimation involve a new model of the M-estimation with probabilistic models of geodetic observations, a new Shift-M split estimation, which allows to estimate a vector of parameter differences and the Shift- M split (+) that is a generalisation of Shift- M split estimation if the design matrix A of a functional model has not a full column rank. The new algorithms of the coordinates conversion between the Cartesian and geodetic coordinates, both on the rotational and triaxial ellipsoid can be mentioned as a highlights of the research of the last four years. New parameter estimation models developed have been adopted and successfully applied to the control network and deformation analysis. New algorithms based on the wavelet, Fourier and Hilbert transforms were applied to find time-frequency characteristics of geodetic and geophysical time series as well as time-frequency relations between them. Statistical properties of these time series are also presented using different statistical tests as well as 2 nd , 3 rd and 4 th moments about the mean. The new forecasts methods are presented which enable prediction of the considered time series in different frequency bands.
The paper presents a new method for simultaneous tracking of varying grid impedance and its uncertainty bounds. Impedance tracking consists of two stages. In the first stage, the actual noise estimate is obtained from least squares (LS) residua. In the second stage, the noise covariance matrix is approximated with the use of residual information. Then weighted least squares (WLS) method is applied in order to estimate impedance and background voltage. Finally uncertainty bounds for impedance estimation are computed. The robustness of the method has been verified using simulated signals. The proposed method has been compared to sliding LS. The results have shown, that the method performs much better than the LS for all considered cases, even in the presence of significant background voltage variations.
Currently used procedures in room acoustics measurements are not automated. Particularly in medium-sized and large areas they require a lot of time and intensive labour which directly translates into an increase in the measurement cost. Introduction of an automated system would increase efficiency of the measurements, and therefore could present both practical and scientific benefit. The paper presents initial feasibility study for designing a system that permits the measurement of selected acoustic parameters for any choice of three-dimensional grid of measurement points throughout the volume of the room. The system will utilize an autonomous probe attached to a blimp, and will be able to measure and analyze acoustic characteristics of the rooms. The article discusses the initial choices of the system elements, starting from the general idea, through the mechanical design and control procedures, the software that controls positioning and flying of the probe, up to the automation of the measurement procedure and its possible impact on the acoustic field.
Quality of energy produced in renewable energy systems has to be at the high level specified by respective standards and directives. One of the most important factors affecting quality is the estimation accuracy of grid signal parameters. This paper presents a method of a very fast and accurate amplitude and phase grid signal estimation using the Fast Fourier Transform procedure and maximum decay side-lobes windows. The most important features of the method are elimination of the impact associated with the conjugate’s component on the results and its straightforward implementation. Moreover, the measurement time is very short ‒ even far less than one period of the grid signal. The influence of harmonics on the results is reduced by using a bandpass pre-filter. Even using a 40 dB FIR pre-filter for the grid signal with THD ≈ 38%, SNR ≈ 53 dB and a 20‒30% slow decay exponential drift the maximum estimation errors in a real-time DSP system for 512 samples are approximately 1% for the amplitude and approximately 8.5・10‒2 rad for the phase, respectively. The errors are smaller by several orders of magnitude with using more accurate pre-filters.
The authors show how to strengthen the educational power of the museum. Emphasize the historical and contextual variability of the main functions performed by museum, indicate that the location of the museum in the community of the city and broaden the scope of its activities to different communities. Characterized by contemporary models of museum education, along with the arguments for taming the different models of learning both by visitors and museum’s staff. & e article presents two practices, which, in the opinion of the authors are conducive to learning in/and by the museum.
This paper presents an analytical model of a three-phase axial flux coreless generator excited by permanent magnets, with special focus on determining the model pa- rameters. An important aspect of this model is the derivation of a coefficient that corrects the flux on the inside and outside edges of the magnets. The obtained parameters are ver- ified by performing field analyses and measurements. A comparison of the results show satisfactory convergence, which confirms the accuracy of the proposed analytical model.
The summary of research activities concerning general theory and methodology performed in Poland in the period of 2015–2018 is presented as a national report for the 27th IUGG (International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics) General Assembly. It contains the results of research on new or improved methods and variants of robust parameter estimation and their application, especially to control network analysis. Reliability analysis of the observation system and an integrated adjustment approach are also given. The identifiability (ID) index as a new measure for minimal detectable bias (MDB) in the observation system of a network, has been introduced. A new method of covariance function parameter estimation in the least squares collocation has been developed. The robustified version of the Shift-Msplit estimation, termed as Shift-M*split estimation, which enables estimation of parameter differences (robustly), without the need of prior estimation of the parameters, has been introduced. Results on the analysis of geodetic time series, particularly Earth orientation parameter time series, geocenter time series, permanent station coordinates and sea level variation time series are also provided in this review paper. The entire bibliography of related works is provided in the references.
The paper deals with frequency estimation methods of sine-wave signals for a few signal cycles and consists of two parts. The first part contains a short overview where analytical error formulae for a signal distorted by noise and harmonics are presented. These formulae are compared with other accurate equations presented previously by the authors which are even more accurate below one cycle in the measurement window. The second part contains a comparison of eight estimation methods (ESPRIT, TLS, Prony LS, a newly developed IpDFT method and four other 3-point IpDFT methods) in respect of calculation time and accuracy for an ideal sine-wave signal, signal distorted by AWGN noise and a signal distorted by harmonics. The number of signal cycles is limited from 0.1 to 3 or 5. The results enable to select the most accurate/ fastest estimation method in various measurement conditions. Parametric methods are more accurate but also much slower than IpDFT methods (up to 3000 times for the number of samples equal to 5000). The presented method is more accurate than other IpDFT methods and much faster than parametric methods, which makes it possible to use it as an alternative, especially in real-time applications.
Fast and accurate grid signal frequency estimation is a very important issue in the control of renewable energy systems. Important factors that influence the estimation accuracy include the A/D converter parameters in the inverter control system. This paper presents the influence of the number of A/D converter bits b, the phase shift of the grid signal relative to the time window, the width of the time window relative to the grid signal period (expressed as a cycle in range (CiR) parameter) and the number of N samples obtained in this window with the A/D converter on the developed estimation method results. An increase in the number b by 8 decreases the estimation error by approximately 256 times. The largest estimation error occurs when the signal module maximum is in the time window center (for small values of CiR) or when the signal value is zero in the time window center (for large values of CiR). In practical applications, the dominant component of the frequency estimation error is the error caused by the quantization noise, and its range is from approximately 8×10-10 to 6×10-4.