Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS) was established in 2003 by the International Association of Geodesy (IAG) with the main goal to deepen understanding of the dynamic Earth system by quantifying human-induced Earth’s changes in space and time. GGOS allows not only for advancing Earth Science, including solid Earth, oceans, ice, atmosphere, but also for better understanding processes between different constituents forming the system Earth, and most importantly, for helping authorities to make intelligent societal decisions. GGOS comprises different components to provide the geodetic infrastructure necessary for monitoring the Earth system and global changes. The infrastructure spread from the global scale, through regional, to national scales. This contribution describes the GGOS structure, components, and goals with the main focus on GGOS activities in Poland, including both the development of the geodetic observing infrastructure as well as advances in processing geodetic observations supporting GGOS goals and providing high-accuracy global geodetic parameters.
The summary of research activities concerning reference frames and reference networks performed in Poland in a period of 2011–2014 is presented. It contains the results of research on implementation of IUGG2011 and IAU2012 resolutions on reference systems, implementation of the ETRS89 in Poland, operational work of permanent IGS/ EUREF stations in Poland, operational work of ILRS laser ranging station in Poland, active GNSS station networks in Poland, maintenance of vertical control in Poland, maintenance and modernization of gravity control, and maintenance of magnetic control in Poland. The bibliography of the related works is given in references.