The article describes how to identify the boundary and yield surface for hypoplastic constitutive equations proposed by Wu, Gudehus and Bauer. It is shown how to identify and plot the surfaces for any equation in this class. Calculation errors are analyzed characteristic for applied set of numerical formulas. In the paper there are computer links to the source code prepared in the MATLAB system, based on instructions in the article. A sample consitutive domains are shown, plotted using the attached computer program.
Middle Palaeolithic land exploitation strategies remain as yet an unexplored element in our understanding of Neanderthal behavioural patterns. Many different approaches to the problem were so far developed. Among others, biological, economic or environmental data concerning Neanderthals were considered as relevant. One of the focus points in such divagations is the issue of raw materials economy as undertaken by Neanderthals. The long-distance transport of knappable minerals (as a basis for the stone tools production) allows an insight into the economy and understanding of the size of land in use by Neanderthals group. Addressing this particular issue from the perspective of the Western Carpathian Mountains allows us to track the trails of mobility or trace possible contact zones between groups, and also to state, that at least in some circumstances Neanderthal groups were infiltrating and possibly crossing this highly elevated area on the S-N axis.
Obłazowa Cave was first excavated in 1985, and is best known for the discoveries of remains of settlement from the time of Middle and Upper Palaeolithic. The traces of most recent settlement in the cave, found in the uppermost part of the stratigraphy can be attributed to Magdalenian settlement. Results of latest excavation brought more precise date this occupation face. In years 2016 and 2017 in layer III of the cave a series of artifacts, and a small sandstone female figurine were found.
The paper presents the evaluation of utility properties of a tube bend produced by bending process using local induction heating technique. Optimal process parameters were defined on the basis of numerical simulations. Mechanical testing procedures for the tube bend were carried out after normalising annealing. Heat treatment parameters have been chosen in compliance with the relevant standard. Geometrical measurements of the bend manufactured under industrial conditions indicate high accuracy of numerical simulations. Geometry and mechanical properties of the produced bend were consistent with the requirements of the applicable standards.
Impact of surface and volume modification and double filtration during pouring the moulds on basic mechanical properties and creep resistance of nickel superalloys IN-713C and MAR-247 in conditions of accelerated creep of castings made of post-production scrap of these alloys is evaluated in this paper. The conditions of initiation and propagation of cracks in the specimens were analysed with consideration of stereological properties of material macro- and microstructure. It has been proven that in the conditions of hightemperature creep at 980°C and at stress σ = 150 MPa, creep resistance of superalloy MAR-247 is more than 10 times higher than the creep resistance of IN-713C alloy. In case of IN-713C alloy, the creep resistance negligibly depends on macrograin sizes. But, the macrograin size considerably affects the time to failure of specimens made of alloy MAR-247. Creep resistance of specimens made of coarse grain material was 20% higher than the resistance of fine grain materials.
This paper presents the results of measurements of liquid metal fluidity and linear shrinkage of nickel alloy IN-713C in vacuum induction melting furnace Balzers VSG-2. Because of limited volume of the furnace chamber special models for technological trials were designed and constructed to fit in the mould of dimensions 170x95x100mm. Two different designs of test models were proposed: horizontal round rods and modified spiral. Preliminary studies were carried out for alloys Al-Si. Horizontal round rods test was useful for evaluation of fluidity of hypoeutectic silumin, however in case of nickel superalloy the mould cavity was completely filled in each test because of high required pouring temperature. Positive results were obtained from the modified spiral test for all alloys used in the research. Relationship between the linear shrinkage for the test rod and a specific indicator of contraction defined on a spiral was observed.
Paper presents the assessment of impact of heat treatment on durability in low-cycle fatigue conditions (under constant load) in castings made using post-production scrap of MAR-247 and IN-713C superalloys. Castings were obtained using modification and filtration methods. Additionally, casting made of MAR-247 were subjected to heat treatment consisting of solution treatment and subsequent aging. During low-cycle fatigue test the cyclic creep process were observed. It was demonstrated that the fine-grained samples have significantly higher durability in test conditions and , at the same time, lower values of plastic deformation to rupture Δϵpl. It has been also proven that durability of fine-grained MAR-247 samples can be further raised by about 60% using aforementioned heat treatment.
The study consisted in assessing the influence of surface and volume modification on the characteristics of high-temperature creep of castings made of waste products of nickel-based superalloys IN 713C and the MAR-247. The results of high-temperature creep tests performed under conditions of two variants of research were analysed. The characteristics of creep according to variant I were obtained on the basis of earlier studies of these alloys with the parameters T=982o C, σ=150MPa . Variant II included carrying out creep tests of alloy IN713C with the parameters T=760o C, σ =400MPa and alloy MAR247 with the parameters: T=982o C, σ=200MPa.Developed creep characteristics were compared with the results of these alloys with the parameters according to variant I of the study. It was observed that the conditions of experiments carried out depending upon the value of the creep test temperature and stress with the creep stability depends on the size of the macrograin (I variant of the studies) or such influence was not observed (II variant of the studies). Stability of samples with coarse structure in variant I of creep tests was significantly higher than the samples with fragmented grain. It was found that the observed stability conditions are dependent on the dominant deformation mechanisms under creep tests carried out - diffusion mechanism in variant I and a dislocation mechanism in variant II of the study. The conditions for the formation and growth of the cracks in the tested materials, including the morphological characteristics of their macro-and microstructure were tested.