Gdy spada temperatura, zmienia się stan skupienia wody. Rzeki, jeziora i morza skuwa lód, para wodna w atmosferze zamienia się w kryształki śniegu, a woda pod powierzchnią gruntu przyjmuje postać drobnych soczewek lub żył lodowych. W wysokich górach i w obszarach polarnych tworzą się lodowce i czapy lodowe. Wszystkie te duże i małe, widoczne i niewidoczne formy występowania wody w stałym stanie skupienia na kuli ziemskiej tworzą kriosferę.
When the temperature drops, rivers, lakes and seas become covered with ice, the water vapor in the atmosphere turns into snow crystals, and underground water turns into tiny ice lenses or veins. Glaciers and ice caps are formed in high mountains and in polar regions. All these large and small, visible and invisible forms of solid water on Earth together form what is known as the “cryosphere.”
Studies over talus cones in nothwestern Wedel Jarlsberg Land enable to define main parameters of these forms, their morphogenetic features and longitudinal profiles. Three zones of occurrence of talus cones have been distinguished, dependent on microlimatic influence of glaciers. Zone A (below 150 m a.s.l.) is not influenced by glaciers. Zone В (from 150 to 350 m a.s.l.) is influenced by glacier snouts. Zone С (over 350 m a.s.l.) is under influence of firn fields. Most intensive development of talus cones in the studied area occurred during the Little Ice Age.
Three types of rock glaciers (moraine, cirque and subslope ones) were distinguished in northwestern Wedel Jarlsberg Land. Subslope rock glaciers were found different from nival moraines. A development of subslope and fossil cirque rock glaciers was connected with the older Holocene whereas of active cirque and moraine rock glaciers with the Little Ice Age.
Methods and results of mass movement measurements on mountain slopes in northwestern Wedel Jarlsberg Land are presented in connection with morphoclimatic zones. Debris movement was investigated using fishing nets while movement of solifluction tonques was studied with series of nails. Marks and lines crosswise the investigated forms were also painted. Creeping of stone belts was measured with a use of tree-nails. Observations of these measuring points after twelve months show usability of employed methods for a record of mass movements.
We propose contents of topographic maps for polar areas to be supplemented with such landforms that are easily identified during the analysis of air or terrestial photographs. Such landforms include rock outliers (monadnocks), glacial boundaries, a beach and thick mantles of tundra vegetation. All these landforms create together with fluvial and lake patterns a system of elements that enable location of users and therefore make preparation of other (e.g. geological, geomorphological or glaciological) maps possible.