This article presents a comparative analysis of two poems, Stéphane Mallarmé’s ‘Soupir’ (1866) and Wacław Rolicz-Lieder’s ‘To My Sister’s Smile’, published in 1891. ‘Soupir’ is one of Mallarmé’s early poems, yet in many respects, as this analysis demonstrates, looks forward to the French poet’s mature phase and foreshadows the poetics of Wacław Rolicz-Lieder. Chief among the similarities are the autothematic focus and the intent to convey feelings of emptiness and longing for an ideal in poems refined to the point of préciosité. However, for all their preoccupation with the craft of poetry, either poet believed that inspiration was absolutely vital for creativity. This article argues that Mallarmé’s poetics, especially his ideas of inspiration and originality, was taken over by Wacław Rolicz-Lieder, who adapted it to suit his own poetic project.
Our survey of data collected in the Chromosome Number Database for Polish angiosperms indicated that the 1,498 species with chromosome counts represent 40% of the total angiosperms (3,719) occurring in Poland, including 1,205 native species (53% of native species) and 194 anthropophytes (56% of anthropophytes). The chromosome numbers are known for all native species occurring in Poland within 298 genera and 46 families, and for all anthropophytes from 79 genera and 11 families. The remaining angiosperm groups are less explored: chromosome counts from Poland are known for 9% of cultivated species and 5% of ephemerophytes. According to generic basic chromosome numbers, 46.44% of Polish angiosperms have been classified as polyploid. By three different threshold methods, the contribution of polyploid plants to the Polish flora is 64.64%, 50.89% or 42.89%. Polyploidy is more common among indigenous than non-indigenous plants, and the ploidy distribution among plants from the Polish Tatras does not differ significantly from that observed in the rest of native Polish plants.
Abstract The chromosome numbers and frequency of polyploids were compared in life forms of Asteraceae, Poaceae and Rosaceae. Both parameters were higher in Poaceae and Rosaceae than in Asteraceae. Among the life forms, long-lived plants including perennials and woody plants (shrubs and trees) generally had higher chromosome numbers and consequently polyploid frequencies than short-lived species (annuals and biennials). The families surveyed have different frequencies of life forms. Asteraceae and Rosaceae are both dicots, but the life forms in Asteraceae are more similar to Poaceae than to Rosaceae. To separate the influence of life form, in a series of tests we compared life forms from the same families. These results also showed that long-lived forms generally have more chromosomes than short-lived ones.