Calretinin (CR), a calcium-binding protein from EF-hand family, is localised in non-pyramidal GABA-ergic interneurons of the hippocampus. CR takes part in maintaining calcium binding homeostasis, which suggests its neuroprotective role. Hippocampal neurons contain membrane transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) which binds to capsaicin (CAP) contained in habanero pepper fruits. Few in vivo studies have revealed the effect of CAP on interneurons containing CR. The aim of the present study was to investigate the CR immunoreac- tivity in interneurons of the hippocampal CA1 field and dentate gyrus (DG) in adult rats after intragastric admin- istration of the habanero pepper fruits. Wistar rats received a peanut oil – control group (C), and oil suspension of habanero pepper fruits at doses of 0.025 g dm/kg b.w. – group I and 0.08 g dm/kg b.w. – group II for 28 days. After euthanasia, the brains were collected and embedded in paraffin blocks using a routine histological tech- nique. Frontal hippocampal sections were immunohistochemically stained for CR by using a peroxidase-antiper- oxidase method. CR immunoreactive (CR-IR) interneurons were morphologically and morphometrically ana- lyzed under a light microscope. The results showed similar shapes and distribution of cells in both areas of the brain in group C and I of animals. However, CR-IR interneurons in the hippocampal CA1 field and in DG were occasionally observed in the group II of rats. The results of morphometric studies did not reveal statistically significant differences in the surface area and shape index of cells between examined brain regions from groups I and II compared to group C. Only in group II of rats, an increase in the digital immunostaining intensity of CR-IR interneurons was found in DG. Low number of CR-IR interneurons in the hippocampal CA1 field and in the DG, under the influence of a large dose of habanero pepper fruits containing CAP, may be caused by the activation of TRPV1 receptors and the increase in Ca2+ ions in these cells. This phenomenon may ultimately lead to neuronal death and may disturb neuronal conduction.
Allergic skin diseases in cats are amongst the most prevalent dermatological conditions in this species. The objectives of this study were to evaluate different types of skin barrier measurements in healthy cats and cats with non-flea non-food hypersensitivity dermatitis (NFNFHD). 24 clinically healthy and 19 NFNFHD cats were included in this clinical trial. In each animal, the transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and skin hydration (SH) were assessed on six clipped body sites by VapoMeter SWL 4605 and Corneometer ®CM 825, respectively. Results of TEWL measurement were , significantly higher in one of the six examined body sites, namely on the lumbar area (p=0.0049). Furthermore, a statistically significant difference was found between the average TEWL values (p=0.019). Statistically notable differences were mea- sured at least in one certain body site for SH: in the groin (p=0.02), where the values in the affect- ed cats were lower than in the healthy individuals. These results may suggest that in NFNFHD cats transepidermal water loss is higher than in healthy cats. Skin hydration is, at least, in certain body sites, lower in atopic feline patients than in healthy individuals.