In this study, medium-carbon steel was subjected to warm deformation experiments on a Gleeble 3500 thermosimulator machine at temperatures of 550°C and 650°C and strain rates of 0.001 s–1 to 1 s–1. The warm deformation behavior of martensite and the effects of strain rate on the microstructure of ultrafine grained medium-carbon steel were investigated. The precipitation behavior of Fe3C during deformation was analyzed and the results showed that recrystallization occurred at a low strain rate. The average ultrafine ferrite grains of 500 ± 58 nm were fabricated at 550°C and a strain rate of 0.001 s–1. In addition, the size of Fe3C particles in the ferrite grains did not show any apparent change, while that of the Fe3C particles at the grain boundaries was mainly affected by the deformation temperature. The size of Fe3C particles increased with the increasing deformation temperature, while the strain rate had no significant effect on Fe3C particles. Moreover, the grain size of recrystallized ferrite decreased with an increase in the strain rate. The effects of the strain rate on the grain size of recrystallized ferrite depended on the deformation temperature and the strain rate had a prominent effect on the grain size at 550°C deformation temperature. Finally, the deformation resistance apparently decreased at 550°C and strain rate of 1 s–1 due to the maximum adiabatic heating in the material.
In order to understand infection of avian influenza A virus (AIV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) in the Siberian Tiger in Northeast China, 75 Siberian Tiger serum samples from three cap- tive facilities in northeastern China were collected. AIV and CDV antibody surveillance was test- ed by using hemagglutination inhibition and serum neutralization methods. The results showed that the seroprevalence of H5 AIV, H9 AIV and CDV was respectively 9.33% (7/75), 61.33% (46/75) and 16% (12/75). In the 1<years <2 and > 5 year-old group, the seroprevalence of the H9 AIV was 24% and 80% (P < 0.01), and the CDV seroprevalence was 6% and 36% (P < 0.01), respectively. It was demonstrated that 3 (4%) out of 75 serum samples were AIV+CDV seropos- itive, with 2.67% (2/75) in H9+AIV and 1.33% (1/75) in H5+H9+AIV. To our knowledge, this is the first report of AIV and CDV seroprevalence in Siberian Tigers in China, which will provide base-line data for the control of AIV and CDV infection in Siberian Tigers in China.
Laplace Transform is often used in solving the free vibration problems of structural beams. In existing research, there are two types of simplified models of continuous beam placement. The first is to regard the continuous beam as a single-span beam, the middle bearing of which is replaced by the bearing reaction force; the second is to divide the continuous beam into several simply supported beams, with the bending moment of the continuous beam at the middle bearing considered as the external force. Research shows that the second simplified model is incorrect, and the frequency equation derived from the first simplified model contains multiple expressions which might not be equivalent to each other. This paper specifies the application method of Laplace Transform in solving the free vibration problems of continuous beams, having great significance in the proper use of the transform method.
Molecular motors are natures nanomachines, and are the essential agents of movement that are an integral part of many living organisms. The supramolecular machine, called the nuclear pore complex (NPC), controls the transport of all cellular material between the cytoplasm and the nucleus that occurs naturally in all biological cells. In the presence of appropriate chemical stimuli, the NPC opens or closes, like a gating mechanism, and permits the flow of material into and out of the nucleus. As a first step in understanding the design characteristics of the NPC, nanoscale studies were conducted to understand the transport characteristics of an idealized NPC model using CFD analysis, discrete element transport and coupled fluid-solid analysis. Results of pressure and velocity profiles obtained from the models indicate that the fluid density, flexibility of walls and the geometry of the flow passage are important in the design of NPC based nano- and micro-motors.