The paper consists the problem of developing a scientific toolkit allowing to predict the thermal state of the ingot during its formation in all elements of the casting and rolling complex, between the crystallizer of the continuous casting machine and exit from the furnace. As the toolkit for the decision making task the predictive mathematical model of the ingot temperature field is proposed. Displacement between the various elements of the CRC is accounted for by changing the boundary conditions. Mass-average enthalpy is proposed as a characteristic of ingot cross-section temperature state. The next methods of solving a number of important problems with the use of medium mass enthalpy are developed: determination of the necessary heat capacity of ingots after the continuous casting machine for direct rolling without heating; determination of the rational time of alignment of the temperature field of ingots having sufficient heat capacity for rolling after casting; determination of the total amount of heat (heat capacity) required to supply the metal for heating ingots that have insufficient amount of internal heat.
According to the psycho-lexical approach in the taxonomy of individual differences, those interpersonal differences, which are the most important for social functioning of individual, have been encoded into natural languages. Therefore by analyzing the lexicons of interpersonal differences, it is possible to identify structures of their descriptions. Application of the psycho-lexical approach in the field of psychology of individual differences lead to obtaining the relatively high consistency regarding scientific taxonomy of personality traits. Also models developed on this basis meet the most important criteria of goodness of the psychological structural models. As a result, the accumulation of knowledge about person’s psychological functioning have been intensified. The aim of the article is to present the specificity of lexical studies and their taxonomical potential for social sciences, as well as key threats and limitations, based on experience of previous psycho-lexical research.
The aim of this study was to analyse and identify specific buffalo seminal plasma proteins (SPPs) responsible for sperm cryotolerance during low temperature storage. Computer Assisted Sperm Analysis (CASA) of the motility and viability of buffalo spermatozoa was performed before freezing and after thawing. Two sample groups were formed – ejaculates with high cryotol- erance (group A) and low cryotolerance (group B). CASA demonstrated that the initial progres- sive motility after thawing of the spermatozoa in group A is significantly higher than in group B (p<0.001). Group B showed a significant increase in the percentage of static and non-progressive spermatozoa at 240 min, when compared to group A (p<0.05). SPPs, proteins in the cryoprotec- tive medium (PM) and proteins in the mixture of PM and SP were separated by High Perfor- mance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Comparative analysis of the chromatographic profiles was performed to identify specific proteins related to sperm cryotolerance. SPPs profiles showed 5 distinct protein peaks in both groups, ranging from 500 kDa to 50 Da. Chromatograms of group A and group B showed quantitative and qualitative differences in protein content. Chromato- grams of proteins in PM showed 11 well-expressed peaks. HPLC analysis of the mixtures of SPPs from the two groups and PM visualized the formation of a new bio-complex structure expressed by a protein peak specific for group A (7.674 min, AU 1.50). This protein peak can be referred as a phenotypic trait for buffalo ejaculates with high sperm cryotolerance.
Some metallographic studies performed on the basis of the massive forging steel static ingot, on its cross-section, allowed to reveal the following morphological zones: a/ columnar grains (treated as the austenite single crystals), b/ columnar into equiaxed grains transformation, c/ equiaxed grains at the ingot axis. These zones are reproduced theoretically by the numerical simulation. The simulation was based on the calculation of both temperature field in the solidifying large steel ingot and thermal gradient field obtained for the same boundary conditions. The detailed analysis of the velocity of the liquidus isotherm movement shows that the zone of columnar grains begins to disappear at the first point of inflection and the equiaxed grains are formed exclusively at the second point of inflection of the analyzed curve. In the case of the continuously cast brass ingots three different morphologies are revealed: a/ columnar structure, b/ columnar and equiaxed structure with the CET, and c/ columnar structure with the single crystal formation at the ingot axis. Some forecasts of the temperature field are proposed for these three revealed morphologies. An analysis / forecast of the behavior of the operating point in the mold is delivered for the continuously cast ingot. A characteristic delay between some points of breakage of the temperature profile recorded at the operating point and analogous phenomena in the solidifying alloy is postulated.
The Structural Peclet Number has been estimated experimentally by analyzing the morphology of the continuously cast brass ingots. It allowed to adapt a proper development of the Ivantsov’s series in order to formulate the Growth Law for the columnar structure formation in the brass ingots solidified in stationary condition. Simultaneously, the Thermal Peclet Number together with the Biot, Stefan, and Fourier Numbers is used in the model describing the heat transfer connected with the so-called contact layer (air gap between an ingot and crystallizer). It lead to define the shape and position of the s/l interface in the brass ingot subjected to the vertical continuous displacement within the crystallizer (in gravity). Particularly, a comparison of the shape of the simulated s/l interface at the axis of the continuously cast brass ingot with the real shape revealed at the ingot axis is delivered. Structural zones in the continuously cast brass ingot are revealed: FC – fine columnar grains, C – columnar grains, E – equiaxed grains, SC – single crystal situated axially.
An innovative method for determining the structural zones in the large static steel ingots has been described. It is based on the mathematical interpretation of some functions obtained due to simulation of temperature field and thermal gradient field for solidifying massive ingot. The method is associated with the extrema of an analyzed function and with its points of inflection. Particularly, the CET transformation is predicted as a time-consuming transition from the columnar- into equiaxed structure. The equations dealing with heat transfer balance for the continuous casting are presented and used for the simulation of temperature field in the solidifying virtual static brass ingot. The developed method for the prediction of structural zones formation is applied to determine these zones in the solidifying brass static ingot. Some differences / similarities between structure formation during solidification of the steel static ingot and virtual brass static ingot are studied. The developed method allows to predict the following structural zones: fine columnar grains zone, (FC), columnar grains zone, (C), equiaxed grains zone, (E). The FCCT-transformation and CET-transformation are forecast as sharp transitions of the analyzed structures. Similarities between steel static ingot morphology and that predicted for the virtual brass static ingot are described.
The article discusses the relationship between energy quality technologies cutting and their environmental friendliness. Based on the energy analysis shows that energy consumption in the individual technological process is connected with the cutting power and power loss, which form the environmental indicators of the cutting process and reduce its energy efﬁciency. In addition, it is shown that at implementation of technological processes on the equipment, electrical systems are AC systems the implementation of the cutting process occurs when excessive consumption of currents. The article presents the results of studies on the energy eﬃciency of cutting processes, deﬁnition of the complex inﬂuence of cutting processes on the environment and humans, the formation of ways of improving environmental and energy performance quality of these processes.