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Abstract

The world in 21st century is facing the problem of growing energy consumption while the supply of fossil fuels is being reduced. This resulted in the development of research into the use of renewable energy sources and development of new technologies for energy production. In Polish conditions the development of agricultural biogas plants finds its legitimacy in the document developed by the Ministry titled "Trends in agricultural biogas plants in Poland in 2010-2020”. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of the weather conditions and the degree of nitrogen fertilisation on yield of reed canary grass (Phalaris Arundinacea L.) and to determine their susceptibility to anaerobic digestion, and usefulness of the production of biogas. Carried out experiments showed that increasing nitrogen fertilisation (from 40 to 120 kg N/ha) linearly increased canary grass green biomass yield from 32 to 46.3 t/ha. However, the highest biogas yield 126 m3/ha was obtained when 80 kg N/ha was applied.
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Abstract

Social and Economic Costs of Spatial Disorder in Agriculture. The main objective of the study was the identification of the phenomena of chaos in the structure and spatial organization of agriculture, that is the agrarian fragmentation of farms, exclusion of land from agricultural production in suburban zones and the fragmentation of the agricultural landscape. These processes cause a major increase in economic and social costs, which results in the loss of resources and spatial disorder in agriculture. An attempt was made to estimate the costs of these processes in economic, social and environmental terms. The economic dimension of spatial disorder in agriculture is manifested by negative results in the production and consumption sphere related most often to high labour costs, and consequently to low incomes. The social dimension of spatial disorder in agriculture is demonstrated by the effects of de-agrarization processes and deformation of social structures. De-agrarization means the processes of agricultural area reduction, extensification and fallowing as well as an increasingly limited significance of agriculture as a workplace and a reduction in the source of income by rural residents. A conducted analysis of spatial disorder in agriculture resulting from the lack of appropriate regulation and taxation systems as well as historical factors allowed determining direct and indirect results influencing the structure and spatial organization of agriculture. Direct results include: a chessboard pattern of agricultural land, marginalization of the agricultural function in rural areas which mostly applies to suburban zones, unregulated ownership of farmland, its unjustified designation for other purposes, a decrease in biodiversity in agriculture and fragmentation of the agricultural landscape. Indirect results include: an increase in the costs of agricultural production, expensive agricultural-installation plans, loss of direct payments, easement appurtenant, the emergence of human-environment conflicts and major transformations of the agricultural landscape in a suburban zone.
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