Exploitation of hard coal seams by roadway system is applied by two coal mines in southern Poland in Upper Silesian Basin. It is a secondary mining exploitation carries out in safety pillars of urban areas and shafts within mining areas of closed coal mines. Roadway system is the excavation process of gateways which are made in parallel order leaving coal pillars between them. An optimal width of coal pillar makes roadway stable and reduces subsidence of terrain surface. The article presents results of subsidence simulation caused by partial extraction using empirical and numerical methods on the example of one exploitation field of “Siltech” coal mine. The asymptotic state of subsidence was considered after mining ceased in the study area. In order to simulate of subsidence, numerical model of rock mass and model of Knothe-Budryk theory were calibrated. Simulation of vertical displacements in numerical method was carried out using RS3 program by Rocscience based on finite element method. The assumption was made that model of rock mass is transversely isotropic medium, in which panels were designed according to order of extraction of coal seams. The results of empirical and numerical methods were compared with measured values of subsidence at benchmarks along drawn lines (subsidence profiles).
A novel herbicidal controlled release formulation composed of (2,4-dichlorophenoxy) acetic acid (2,4-D) chemically bonded to biodegradable (R,S)-3-hydroxybutyric acid oligomers was investigated. The synthesis of (R,S)-3-hydroxy butyric acid oligomers was carried out via the ring opening polymerization of β-butyrolactone initiated by 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic potassium salt in the presence of complexing agents. The formed oligomers were characterized by size exclusion chromatography, proton magnetic resonance and electrospray mass spectrometry in order to fi nd out their molar mass distribution and molecular structures. An assessment of biological effectiveness of the obtained herbicidal formulation was carried out in the greenhouse vs. Sinapis alba var. Nakielska. A promotion of the controlled release formulation with decreased water solubility and with low vapor pressure of the active ingredient, instead of traditional formulations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid may help to ensure a greater safety for workers and reduce the risk of dissemination of the active ingredient in the soil profi le.
The purpose of the study was to analyse the effect of changes in the composition of raw material and agglomeration on sorption properties of a multi-component food, in the example of a powdered cocoa beverage. The basic composition of the mixtures was 20% of cocoa and 80% of sucrose. A change in raw material composition involved partial or total replacement of sucrose with a mixture of glucose and fructose, or with maltodextrin. Analysis of sorption properties demonstrated variability in the course of isotherms of water vapour sorption for components of the powdered cocoa beverage. Limiting water activity (aw) was determined for the value of 0.529. The conducted analysis detected no significant effect of agglomeration on water content in the tested products. However, a significant change in the raw material composition was demonstrated.