Historic title is just one of many legal instruments which may be raised by parties and used by judges to decide a territorial dispute. If a claim of historic title in given circumstances may be deemed to have been extinguished as a result of its relative weakness, the elements advanced in support of its construction, for example uti possidetis or eﬀ ective occupation, may be used to support other types of legal claims. Taking into account its construction and its systemic conditional criteria, historic title gains maximum eﬀ ectiveness when conditions exist which would support a ﬁ nding of its incremental consolidation. This involves a multi-dimensional interpretation in reliance on particular elements which, taken together, create a complicated factual state in a particular territorial dispute. On the other hand, consolidation of historic title is not an argument which can be used by the indigenous native inhabitants of a territory, since their arguments are not based on claims of sovereignty.
International law reflects systemic conditions compatible with its essence, which means that a space must exist inside the borders of that order for the presence of the phenomenon of general principles. The assumption that international law is a legal system ipso facto means that general principles must exist within its borders. A general principle of law is a necessary element of every legal order. It is a form and a tool in which the efforts of the individual seeking to comprehend a given phenomenon are materialized through imposing order on it rather than by breaking it down into unconnected and independent elements. Since law is an expression of order, law therefore applies general principles. The systematicity of law, and therefore of international law as well, creates the primary source of the binding force of any norm. Considerations of natural law or positive law justifications for the presence of general principles in international law are of little consequence, as the source of general principles is the systemic nature of the law. Order and hierarchy are part of the rationalized system in which norms of law present themselves. This dependency applies also to norms of international law. The role of the judge is to fill in the appropriate normative content (general principles) in fields constituting at one and the same time both a necessary element and a consequence of the systemic character of the international legal order. Within this context the principle of good faith constitutes one of the bases for considerations concerning the extent of the international legal order. The extent of international law reaches as far as the extent to which evidence of good faith are present among the subjects of international law. The impossibility of describing relations between two states by the use of the determinants of good faith, translated in turn into a normative general principle, determinates the limits of international law.
Nastał okres skrajnych stanów pogodowych. Tak twierdzą klimatolodzy i tego doświadczamy. Skrajności w przyrodzie są dla ludzi nieprzyjemne. Raczej. Za to te przenikające społeczeństwo wywołują konsekwencje rozległe.
Forests may play important role in partial neutralization of CO2 emission. To maximize their potential it is unavoidable to divide them into forests that will be allowed to evolve toward natural state and forest predisposed for timber production, supplemented with forest plantations. Natural forests store almost twice more carbon in biomass and soil than managed forests, and carbon contained in wood from plantations and timber-producing forests will be frozen long time in wooden constructions. Gasification of wood debris instead of burning will allow for production of biocarbon that added to soil will residue there through decades, and will decrease necessary amount of artificial fertilizers, which production is an important source of carbon dioxide. Forests evolving to natural state will be less prone to fire and hurricanes, and will better protect biodiversity. Presented project is not contradictory to the project “The Forest Carbon Farms” of State Forests, but allows to reach better results in shorter time and likely at lower cost.
An attempt has been made to present “continuity” which, despite artists’ denials, is a prerequisite for the creation of novelty. Subsequent movements and styles (trends today) in architecture have tried to deny the ideas and forms of their predecessors. Avant-garde art distances itself from any continuation. The original does not exist even in the modern world, let alone in post-modernity. The world is filled with shapes, colours and images of the past, unable to liberate itself from it. The artists are left with a false impression of their genius and originality. Looking at the buildings built today, one can discern the unbuilt architecture of the early twentieth century. This is by no means the accusation of lack of originality, but rather the realisation of a harsh fact that it is impossible to create complete novelty. It might have been easier for our predecessors without access to the Internet and the World Library of Imagination.
The article features a systemic approach to digitalization in mining, covering the production process, supervision and management. Business continuity management of a critical infrastructure was characterized with respect to an industrial facility, i.e. a mine. The “SILESIA” Integrated Security System was described. This solution, offered by CNP EMAG, is an example of a systemic approach successfully implemented in industry. The article includes information about the development of technological hardware solutions as well as software which is able to assess the solutions developed in the SecLab Information Security Technology Development Laboratory in the EMAG Institute.
The study presents fifteen oxygen-bearing secondary minerals of bismuth from the north-eastern part of the Variscan Karkonosze granitoid pluton in the northern zone of the Bohemian massif. The minerals were investigated by optical, electron microprobe, classic chemical, XRD, IR absorption and fluid inclusion methods. The late, very low temperature epithermal solutions most probably caused formation of sillénite, kusachiite, bismoclite, bismutite, beyerite, kettnerite, pucherite, schumacherite, namibite and eulytite. Solutions dominated by supergene (meteoric) waters were the parents for bismite, russellite, koechlinite, ximengite and walpurgite. The paper also contains information on early research on the investigated minerals.
Abstract This article proposes the use of parametric design software, commonly used by architects, in order to obtain complex trajectory and program code for industrial robots. The paper describes the drawbacks of existing solutions and proposes a new script to obtain a correct program. The result of the algorithm was verified experimentally.
In this study, music teachers' exposure to sound was tested by measuring the A-weighted equivalent sound pressure level (SPL), the A-weighted maximum SPL and the C-weighted peak SPL. Measurements were taken prior to and after acoustic treatment in four rooms during classes of trumpet, saxophone, French horn, trombone and percussion instruments. Results showed that acoustic treatment affects the exposure of music teachers to sound. Daily noise exposure levels (LEX, 8 h) for all teachers exceeded a limit of 85 dB while teaching music lessons prior to room treatment. It was found that the LEX, 8 h values ranged from 85.8 to 91.6 dB. The highest A-weighted maximum SPL and C-weighted peak SPL that music teachers were exposed to were observed with percussion instruments (LAmax = 110.4 dB and LCpeak = 138.0 dB). After the treatments, daily noise exposure level decreased by an average of 5.8, 3.2, 3.0, 4.2 and 4.5 dB, respectively, for the classes of trumpet, saxophone, French horn, trombone and drums, and did not exceed 85 dB in any case.
This paper presents control method for multiple two-wheeled mobile robots moving in formation. Trajectory tracking algorithm from  is extended by collision avoidance, and is applied to the different type of formation task: each robot in the formation mimics motion of the virtual leader with a certain displacement. Each robot avoids collisions with other robots and circular shaped, static obstacles existing in the environment. Artificial potential functions are used to generate repulsive component of the control. Stability analysis of the closed-loop system is based on Lyapunov-like function. Effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is illustrated by simulation results.
This article discusses passages in the works of Greek and Roman writers, from Homer to the Church Fathers and Procopius, in which the seaside is a place of carefree play, those in which looking at the sea seems to have a good influence on the human mind, those in which walking on the shore is an opportunity for a philosophical dispute, and those in which pleasure is derived from being alone near the sea.