Leon Król (1842 -1927) was born at Rogalin near Kórnik to the family of the manor administrator of Count Raczyński and was educated to become a saddler and harness-maker in Kórnik, Poznan, and Łowicz. In 1863, Leon joined Leon Young’s insurgent detachment. After the defeat suff ered by Brdów on 29 May, he subsequently came under the command of Alojzy Seyfried, Ludwik Oborski, and Edmund Taczanowski. He fought in the battles of Babsk (17 May), Niewiesz (23 May), Sędziejowice (26 August; it was here that he rendered outstanding services), and Kruszyna (29 August), where Taczanowski’s detachment was finally smashed. He then participated in insurgent gendarmerie actions at Łask and Szadek, and in the battle of Jeżew on 5 December 1863. Having returned to his family area, he was subsequently punitively conscripted into the Prussian army, served in several campaigns, and finally settled at Kórnik. After Poland regained independence in 1918, Leon Król was promoted to the rank of a lieutenant, received a uniform as a military veteran, and participated in the production of one of the first Polish historical fi lms. Many of his descendants still live in Kórnik today. The text of his unfi nished memories of 1863, written in 1911, has survived in the Kórnik Library in the form of a typescript copy, and was edited by Stanisława Andrejewska.
Gas emissions from underground sites to the atmosphere depend on many factors. Pressure drops are considered to be the most important. However, emissions can also be observed during the initial phase of the pressure rise, following a previous drop in pressure. On the other hand, gas emissions may not be detected when the pressure drops, especially when a previous pressure rise has taken place. The aim of the research was to determine the role of variations in baric tendency on airflow rate and its direction. To solve this problem a numerical model was built utilizing the Ansys Fluent software package. Subsequently, three scenarios of baric tendency variations were tested: a) rise – drop, b) drop – drop, c) drop – rise. The results showed inert behavior of gases. Under scenario (c), 1 hour after the change in tendency gases still were flowing out to the atmosphere. Considering scenario (a), it was proved that even during a pressure drop gas emissions do not take place, which can be crucial for further determination of the gas hazard at the surface or for assessment of the rate of gas emissions from a particular gas emitter. Scenario (b) merely gave an overview of the process and was mainly used for validation purposes. It gave a maximal CO2 concentration of 2.18%vol (comparable to measurements) and a CO2 mass flow rate 0.15kg/s. Taking into account greenhouse gas emissions this amounted to 514 kg CO2/h.
Autor, wykorzystując materiały źródłowe i wielojęzyczną literaturę przedmiotu, wyszedł z założenia, że aby znaleźć genezę narodowosocjalistycznej interpretacji geopolityki, należy sięgnąć do dorobku protoplastów tej gałęzi wiedzy, a więc przed wszystkim Niemca Friedricha Ratzla (1844–1904) i Szweda Rudolfa Kjelléna (1864–1922). To za sprawą tych badaczy do wokabularza narodowych socjalistów trafiło między innymi takie pojęcia, jak „przestrzeń życiowa” (Lebensraum) i „poczucie przestrzeni” (Raumsinn). Istotnymi komponentami nazistowskiej geopolityki stały się też z biegiem czasu: „Europa Środkowa” (Mitteleuropa), „gospodarka wielkiego obszaru” (Grossraumwirtschaft) i „ład wielkiego obszaru (Grossraumordnung). Ważne uzupełnienia wniósł też Karl Haushofer (1869–1946), utrzymujący ożywione kontakty z Rudolfem Hessem, jednym z najbliższych współpracowników Adolfa Hitlera. Z dalszych rozważań autora wynika, że narodowosocjalistyczna koncepcja geopolityki, której podstawowe wątki znalazły się już w tekście Mein Kampf, powiększała się o coraz to nowe hasła, stanowiąc twór eklektyczny, dostosowywany do zmieniającej się sytuacji wewnętrznej i międzynarodowej Niemiec. Priorytetem pozostawała specyficzna doktryna autarkii, od 1936 roku podporządkowana przygotowaniom wojennym. Po wybuchu drugiej wojny światowej w 1939 roku pojawił się program uwzględniająca przemiany rasowe i etniczno- -terytorialne na wielką skalę, z nieodłącznym programem „ostatecznego rozwiązania” (Endlösung), który prowadził do wyniszczenia ludności żydowskiej i romskiej. W dalszej perspektywie, w razie zwycięskiego zakończenia wojny, program nazistowskiej geopolityki miał przynieść zagładę Słowian (Generalplan Ost) i ostateczną przebudowę porządku europejskiego, naznaczonego stygmatem ludobójstwa, bezwzględnej eksploatacji ekonomicznej i niczym nieograniczonej dominacji germańskiej „rasy panów” (Herrenrasse).
In the present work the results of the investigations on dead zone formation conditions in catalyst pellet are discussed. A new, simple method of determining the types of kinetic equations for which such a zone can appear was developed on the basis of simple mathematical transformations. It was shown that: (i) pellet geometry has no influence on necessary conditions of the origination of dead zone (ii) only driving-force term (in the sense of Langmuir-Hinshelwood-Hougen-Watson kinetic approach) decides if a dead zone is formed. A new algorithm which allows fast and precise evaluation of critical Thiele modulus Fcrit (in a catalyst pellet for F>Fcrit the dead zone appears) was proposed and tested.
Perception takes into account the costs and benefits of possible interpretations of incoming sensory data. This should be especially pertinent for threat recognition, where minimising the costs associated with missing a real threat is of primary importance. We tested whether recognition of threats has special characteristics that adapt this process to the task it fulfils. Participants were presented with images of threats and visually matched neutral stimuli, distorted by varying levels of noise. We found threat superiority effect and liberal response bias. Moreover, increasing the level of noise degraded the recognition of the neutral images to higher extent than the threatening images. To summarise, recognising threats is special, in that it is more resistant to noise and decline in stimulus quality, suggesting that threat recognition is a fast ‘all or nothing’ process, in which threat presence is either confirmed or negated.
The paper presents optimization of power line geometrical parameters aimed to reduce the intensity of the electric field and magnetic field intensity under an overhead power line with the use of a genetic algorithm (AG) and particle swarm optimization (PSO). The variation of charge distribution along the conductors as well as the sag of the overhead line and induced currents in earth wires were taken into account. The conductor sag was approximated by a chain curve. The charge simulation method (CSM) and the method of images were used in the simulations of an electric field, while a magnetic field were calculated using the Biot–Savart law. Sample calculations in a three-dimensional system were made for a 220 kV single – circuit power line. A comparison of the used optimization algorithms was made.
This work presents an influence of cooling rate on crystallization process, structure and mechanical properties of MCMgAl12Zn1 cast magnesium alloy. The experiments were performed using the novel Universal Metallurgical Simulator and Analyzer Platform. The apparatus enabled recording the temperature during refrigerate magnesium alloy with three different cooling rates, i.e. 0.6, 1.2 and 2.4°C/s and calculate a first derivative. Based on first derivative results, nucleation temperature, beginning of nucleation of eutectic and solidus temperature were described. It was fund that the formation temperatures of various thermal parameters, mechanical properties (hardness and ultimate compressive strength) and grain size are shifting with an increasing cooling rate.
In virtual acoustics or artificial reverberation, impulse responses can be split so that direct and reflected components of the sound field are reproduced via separate loudspeakers. The authors had investigated the perceptual effect of angular separation of those components in commonly used 5.0 and 7.0 multichannel systems, with one and three sound sources respectively (Kleczkowski et al., 2015, J. Audio Eng. Soc. 63, 428-443). In that work, each of the front channels of the 7.0 system was fed with only one sound source. In this work a similar experiment is reported, but with phantom sound sources between the front loud- speakers. The perceptual advantage of separation was found to be more consistent than in the condition of discrete sound sources. The results were analysed both for pooled listeners and in three groups, according to experience. The advantage of separation was the highest in the group of experienced listeners.
Reconciliation between two copper ore mines transferred ore from one mine to another for processing in enrichment plants generated the need to regularly study the amount and composition of the ore on the conveyor connecting these two mines. To ensure the objectivity of the study, taking composite samples and their analysis was entrusted to a specialized outside laboratory. However, the managing staff of both mines still have doubts whether sampling results reflect correctly content of transported ore especially when the fed is highly variable. In order to investigate how the relatively low sampling rate affects the accuracy and precision of the measurement, the article investigates the hypothetical situation on the linking conveyor with the ore having extremely differentiated mineralization: 80% of almost barren rock (below 0.7% Cu) and 20% of the richly mineralized shale (around 10% Cu). Such ore occurs in some areas of the mine, from which it is fed onto a connecting conveyor. Through simulation techniques it was examined how the frequency of sampling can influence the distribution of the pooled sample results. It turned out that for 16 randomly selected samples in the following 15 minutes time intervals of a working shift, the spread of results around the simulated value is very large. A satisfactory accuracy level for the estimations of mean Cu content in the transported ore is achieved when the samples are collected at 30-second intervals. Only with sampling frequency close to on-line scanner parameters the probability of obtaining estimations with deviation exceeding 10% drops to the level of 2%. In the case of extremely differentiated ore doubts about confidence in the described measurements are fully confirmed, because with over 50% probability a single measurement could be deviated by 50% up and down from the true value.
As experience shows the practical, reliable assessment and optimisation of total costs of logistical processes implemented in supply chains of foundry plants is a quite complex and complicated process, because it requires to enclose all, without exception, performed actions, including them in various reference cross-sections, systematic activities and finally transforming them in a totally homogenous collection. Only solid analysis and assessment of assortment management in logistical supply systems in foundry plants of particular assortment groups allows to lower the supply costs significantly. In the article the analysis and assessment of the newest implemented optimising algorithms are presented in the process stock management of selected material groups used in a production process of a chosen foundry plant. A practical solution to solve a problem of rotary stock cost minimisation is given as well as of costs while creating a stock with the usage of economical volume and value of order.
In the calculations presented in the article, an artificial immune system (AIS) was used to plan the routes of the fleet of delivery vehicles supplying food products to customers waiting for the delivery within a specified, short time, in such a manner so as to avoid delays and minimize the number of delivery vehicles. This type of task is classified as an open vehicle routing problem with time windows (OVRPWT). It comes down to the task of a traveling salesman, which belongs to NP-hard problems. The use of the AIS to solve this problem proved effective. The paper compares the results of AIS with two other varieties of artificial intelligence: genetic algorithms (GA) and simulated annealing (SA). The presented methods are controlled by sets of parameters, which were adjusted using the Taguchi method. Finally, the results were compared, which allowed for the evaluation of all these methods. The results obtained using AIS proved to be the best.