A new concept of an electrostatic spray column for liquid-liquid extraction was investigated. An important problem for separation processes is the presence of azeotropic or close-boiling mixtures in their production, for example heptane with ethanol, since the separation is impossible by ordinary distillation. The use of ionic liquids (IL) as a dispersed solvent specially engineered for any specific organic mixture in terms of selectivity is a key factor to successful separation. As IL present particularly attractive combination of favorable characteristics for the separation of heptane and ethanol, in this work we use 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium methyl sulfate [BMIM][MeSO4]. Because of high viscosity and relatively high cost of IL a new technique was introduced, consisting in the electrostatically spray generation to enhance the mass transport between the phases. In order to optimally design the geometry of the contactor a series of numerical simulation was performed. Especially multi-nozzle variants for better exploitation of contactor volume were investigated. Experiments showed excellent possibility of control of the dispersion characteristics by applied voltage and thus control of the rate of extraction. The preliminary simulations based on our mathematical model for a three nozzle variant exhibited visual agreement with the theory of electrostatics.
Improvements of modern manufacturing techniques implies more efficient production but also new challenges for coordinate metrologists. The crucial task here is a coordinate measurement accuracy assessment. It is important because according to technological requirements, measurements are useful only when they are stated with their accuracy. Currently used methods for the measurements accuracy estimation are difficult to implement and time consuming. It is therefore important to implement correct and validated methods that will also be easy to implement. The method presented in this paper is one of them. It is an on-line accuracy estimation method based on the virtual CMM idea. A model is built using a modern LaserTracer system and a common test sphere and its implementation lasts less than one day. Results obtained using the presented method are comparable to results of commonly used uncertainty estimation methods which proves its correct functioning. Its properties predispose it to be widely used both in laboratory and industrial conditions.
Therapeutic and surgical applications of focused ultrasound require monitoring of local temperature rises induced inside tissues. From an economic and practical point of view ultrasonic imaging techniques seem to be the most suitable for the temperature control. This paper presents an implementation of the ultrasonic echoes displacement estimation technique for monitoring of local temperature rise in tissue during its heating by focused ultrasound The results of the estimation were compared to the temperature measured with thermocouple. The obtained results enable to evaluate the temperature fields induced in tissues by pulsed focused ultrasonic beams using non-invasive imaging ultrasound technique