In order to identify the modal parameters of civil structures it is vital to distinguish the defective data from that of appropriate and accurate data. The defects in data may be due to various reasons like defects in the data collection, malfunctioning of sensors, etc. For this purpose Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA) was engaged toenvisage the distribution of sensor’s data and to detect the malfunctioning with in the sensors. Then outlier analysis was performed to remove those data points which may disrupt the accurate data analysis. Then Data Driven Stochastic Sub-space Identification (DATA-SSI) was engaged to perform the modal parameter identification. In the end to validate the accuracy of the proposed method stabilization diagrams were plotted. Sutong Bridge, one of the largest span cable stayed bridge was used as a case study and the suggested technique was employed. The results obtained after employing the above mentioned techniques are very valuable, accurate and effective.
Calibration is necessary for dual manipulator to complete operational tasks. This paper proposes an effective robot-robot and hand-eye calibration method based on virtual constraints. Firstly, a rotational error model and a translational error model are established based on the relationships between the transformation matrices of the dual manipulator calibration system. Then a poses-alignment method is designed to make the poses of the two robots satisfy the constructed virtual constraints. At the aligned positions, the joint angles of the two robots are saved and used to calculate the values of the variables in the error models. Finally, the robot-robot and hand-eye rotational errors are estimated by an iterative algorithm. These errors are then used to calculate translational errors based on the SVD (singular value decomposition) method. To show the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method, experiments of robot-robot and hand-eye calibration for dual manipulators are performed. The experiment results demonstrate that the accuracy of the dual manipulator system is improved greatly.
In the current study, twenty lambs, aged 4 months, half male and half female, were classified into four groups, with five in each group. The experimental three groups of lambs were given intravenous (IV), intramuscular (IM) and subcutaneous (SC) administrations of recombinant ovine interferon-τ (roIFN-τ). The fourth group (normal control) of lambs was given normal saline injections in the same way. After administrations, blood samples were collected from the tested animals at different time points post injection, and the serum titers of roIFN-τ were measured using cytopathic effect (CPE) inhibition bioassay. The results of calculating pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters using DAS software showed that the PK characteristics of roIFN-τ through IV injection conformed to the two-compartment open model, whose half-life of distribution phases (T1/2α) was 0.33±0.034 h and the elimination half-life(T1/2β) was 5.01±0.24 h. However, the PK features of IM injection and SC injection of roIFN-τ conformed to the one compartment open model, whose Tmax were 3.11±0.26 h and 4.83±0.43 h, respectively, together with an elimination half life(T1/2β) of 9.11±0.76 h and 7. 43±0.58 h, and an absorption half-life (T1/2k(a)) of 1.13±0.31 h and 1.85±0.40 h, respectively. The bioavailability of roIFN-τ after IM administration reaches 73.57%, which is greater than that of SC administration (53.43%). These results indicate that the drug administration effect can be preferably obtained following a single dose IM administration of the roIFN-τ aqueous preparation. This study will facilitate the clinical application of roIFN-τ as a potential antiviral agent in future work.
The friction and wear properties of 201HT aluminum alloys and the corresponding competitive coupons were tested on an electrohydraulic servo face friction and wear testing machine (MM-U10G). The microstructures of the competitive coupons were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and consequently the corresponding friction and wear mechanisms were studied. The results demonstrated that: (1) the best competitive material of friction and wear performance of the 201HT was the 201HTC. (2) the 201HTC modified by carbon following the initial mill for oil storage of the micro-groove to be produced, increased the corresponding lubrication performance reduced the friction coefficient and wear rate effectively. (3) the 201HT-201HTC could obtain both better friction and wear mainly due to the initial process of grinding following the 201HT plastic deformation occurred in the surface and the formation of a series of re-melting welding points, whereas the 201HT material hardness would be similar to the 201HTC material hardness, which led into the competitive material friction and wear performance improvement.
Compared with the robots, humans can learn to perform various contact tasks in unstructured environments by modulating arm impedance characteristics. In this article, we consider endowing this compliant ability to the industrial robots to effectively learn to perform repetitive force-sensitive tasks. Current learning impedance control methods usually suffer from inefficiency. This paper establishes an efficient variable impedance control method. To improve the learning efficiency, we employ the probabilistic Gaussian process model as the transition dynamics of the system for internal simulation, permitting long-term inference and planning in a Bayesian manner. Then, the optimal impedance regulation strategy is searched using a model-based reinforcement learning algorithm. The effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method are verified through force control tasks using a 6-DoFs Reinovo industrial manipulator.
Pseudorabies (PR) outbreaks have devastated many swine farms in several parts of China since late 2011. The outbreak-associated pseudorabies virus (PRV) variant strains exhibited some typical amino acid changes in glycoprotein E (gE), a diagnostic antigen used for discriminating between PRV-infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA). To counteract the potential impact of epitope variations on current serological diagnostics of PRV, we produced monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against gE protein of one representative PRV variant strain and developed a blocking immunoperoxidase monolayer assay (b-IPMA) for DIVA. The b-IPMA was based on the inhibition of binding between PRV-infected cells and mAb by PRV-specific antibodies present in clinical swine sera and was validated by comparison with a commercial PRV gpI Antibody Test Kit (IDEXX Laboratories, USA). The diagnostic sensitivity, diagnostic specificity and agreement were determined to be 99.25%, 98.18% and 99.02% respectively upon testing 509 serum samples. b-IPMA detected only PRV-specific antibodies and showed no cross- -reactivity with antibodies elicited by gE-deleted vaccine or other common swine pathogens. Thus, b-IPMA has the potential to be used for high-throughput screening of PRV-infected animals in veterinary clinics.
Sapelovirus A (SV-A) is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus which is associated with acute diarrhea, pneumonia and reproductive disorders. The virus capsid is composed of four proteins, and the functions of the structural proteins are unclear. In this study, we expressed SV-A structural protein VP1 and studied its antigenicity and immunogenicity. SDS-PAGE analysis revealed that the target gene was expressed at high levels at 0.6 mM concentration of IPTG for 24 h. The mouse polyclonal antibody against SV-A VP1 protein was produced and reached a high antiserum titer (1: 2,048,000). Immunized mice sera with the recombinant SV-A VP1 protein showed specific recognition of purified VP1 protein by western blot assay and could recognize native SV-A VP1 protein in PK-15 cells infected with SV-A by indirect immunofluorescence assay. The successfully purified recombinant protein was able to preserve its antigenic determinants and the generated mouse anti-SV-A VP1 antibodies could recognize native SV-A, which may have the potential to be used to detect SV-A infection in pigs.
In order to compare the pathogenicity of different Tembusu virus (TMUV) strains from geese, ducks and chickens, 56 5-day-old Cherry Valley ducklings which were divided into 7 groups and infected intramuscularly with 7´105 PFU/ml per duck of six challenge virus stocks. The clinical signs, weight gain, mortality, macroscopic and microscopic lesions, virus loads in sera of 1, 3, 5, 7, 11 and 14 dpi and serum antibody titers were examined. The results showed that these viruses could make the young ducks sick, but the clinical signs differed with the different species-original strains. All the experimental groups lose markedly in weight gain compared to the control, but there were no obvious distinctions in weight gains, as well as macroscopic and microscopic lesions of dead ducks between the infected groups. However, the groups of waterfowl-derived strains (from geese and ducks) showed more serious clinical signs and higher relative expressions of virus loads in sera than those from chicken-derived. The mortality of waterfowl groups was 37.5%, and the greatest mortality of chicken groups was 12.5%. The serum antibodies of the geese-species group JS804 appeared earlier and were higher in the titers than others. Taken toghter, the pathogenicity of waterfowl-derived TMUV was more serious than chicken-derived TMUV and JS804 could be chosen as one TMUV vaccine strain to protect from the infection.