The aim of this study was to measure serum neopterin and C-reactive protein (CRP) concen- trations in female dogs with mammary tumours and evaluate the association between the values of these indicators and some clinical characteristics of the tumour. Fifty three female dogs were used for this study, including 43 dogs with mammary gland tumours (10 benign and 33 malignant) and 10 healthy controls. The concentrations of neopterin and CRP were determined using the ELISA technique and commercial ELISA kits. The mean serum neopterin concentration in fe- male dogs with mammary tumours was lower than in healthy dogs, but significant difference was not found. Similarly, there were no significant differences in neopterin concentrations in female dogs based on tumour size, tumour ulceration and metastasis. The mean CRP concentration was significantly higher (p<0.05) in dogs with malignant tumours compared to dogs with benign tu- mours and control. Furthermore, serum CRP concentration was significantly higher (p<0.05) in dogs with metastatic malignant tumours compared to dogs with non-metastatic mammary tu- mours. The CRP concentration was significantly lower (p<0.05) in dogs with tumours less than 3 cm compared to those with larger tumours, and significantly higher in dogs with ulcerated tu- mours compared to those without ulceration. Our findings suggest that the neoplastic process in the mammary gland does not cause significant changes in serum neopterin concentrations in dogs. Higher concentrations of serum CRP in dogs with advanced stages of malignant tumours may suggest that CRP could be a potential prognostic marker in canine malignant mammary tu- mours, but this hypothesis needs further study.
The aim of the present study was to determine the concentrations of glutathione (GSH), vitamin C, copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) in the uterine tissues in diagnosis of canine pyometra. Fourteen samples of uterine tissues from female dogs with pyometra and twelve samples of healthy uteruses (control) were used. The concentrations of GSH and vitamin C were determined in the uterine tissue homogenates using spectrophotometric methods. The concentrations of Cu and Zn were measured using atomic absorption spectrometer. The results obtained showed the significantly lower (p<0.05) concentration of GSH and the trend towards lower concentration of vitamin C in the pyometra samples compared to the control. The concentrations of Cu and Zn were similar in the uterine tissues from female dogs with pyometra and those from healthy female dogs. The lower GSH and vitamin C concentrations in the uterine tissues of female dogs with pyometra indicate that the non-enzymatic antioxidant mechanisms are impaired in the uterus of dogs with pyometra. These findings suggest that the imbalance of oxidative-antioxidative can play an important role in pathogenesis of canine pyometra.
The investigations were carried out in order to assess the effect of thermophilic fermentation on changes in concentration of seven congeners with codes: 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153 and 180 in sewage sludge. The total concentration of PCBs was the highest before the process of thermophilic fermentation. On the tenth day of the process of fermentation it was found that the total concentration of LCB doubled the previous level, whereas in higher chlorinated PCBs this value decreased twice. After the process of thermophilic digestion, all the determined congeners of PCBs were still present. However, their total concentration was reduced by 84% on the fourteenth day of the process. Low concentration of heavy metal ions in the liquid phase of sewage sludge was observed. The metal ions precipitated and remained bound throughout the stabilization process. Metal speciation analysis was performed, and revealed some changes in the chemical forms of the metals during the stabilization process of sludge. The highest increase of zinc, copper, nickel, cadmium, and chromium concentration was observed in the organic-sulfide fraction, whereas the highest increase of lead was found in the residual fraction. Thermophilic methane fermentation did not cause the accumulation of heavy metals in the mobile fractions of sludge.
The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the anterior chamber constitutes part of the normal migratory pathway of CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes in cattle and swine. The cells obtained from aqueous humor of cows and pigs were stained for CD4 and CD8 receptors, and subsequently analyzed with flow cytometry. The mean percentage of CD4+CD8-, CD4-CD8+ and CD4+CD8+ cells within the total lymphocyte population of the bovine anterior chamber was, respectively, 17.88, 12.64 and 27.26%. In turn, the mean values of these parameters in pigs were 1.77, 38.48 and 17.45, respectively. Among bovine and porcine CD4+CD8+ cells prevalent were those displaying CD4lowCD8low and CD4lowCD8high phenotypes, respectively. The results suggest that the anterior chamber in cattle and swine is an element in the normal migratory pathway of CD4+, CD8+ and CD4+CD8+ cells. Furthermore, the contribution of these subsets in the anterior chamber lymphocyte population can differ considerably between animal species.