The present paper contains a list of 104 taxa of lichens and lichenicolous fungi, found in the Cape Lions Rump, Site of Special Scientific Interest No. 34 (King George Island, Antarctica), with their distribution and ecological analysis. A provisional vegetation map of the area is also provided. During the field survey the data were collected using the cartogram method in a grid of squares 250 x 250 m. The current abundance and spatial distribution of lichen species provides baseline data for long-term monitoring biological changes.
Formerly reported as maritime Antarctic Bacidia sp. A has been re-named here as B. chrysocolla Olech, Czarnota et Llop. Another new species, B. subcoprodes Olech et Czarnota, found in the continental and maritime Antarctic has also been described here. A placement of both taxa within Bacidia De Not. is probably tentative because they are not congeneric with the type of this genus, B. rosella (Pers.) De Not. Similarities to other Bacidia with Laurocerasi-brown hypothecium and mostly 3-septate ascospores are discussed.
This paper reports on 29 species of lichenicolous fungi collected in the Hornsund region and Sørkapp Land area, Spitsbergen. New to science are Hystrix gen. nov., Slellifraga gen. nov., Dactylospora cladoniicola sp. nov., Hystrix peltigericola sp. nov., Stellifraga cladoniicola sp. nov. and Zwackhiomyces macrosporus sp. nov. A further 15 species are new to Svalbard.
The list contains original papers by Polish authors or co-authors concerning Antarctic or sub-Antarctic plants. The list is supplemented by papers on bacteria and those on general indicators of the amount of plants (chlorophyll content and primary productivity). Antarctic investigations of Polish botanists were carried out mainly during the expeditions to Polish Antarctic Station "H. Arctowski" (King George Island, South Shetlands; 62° 09'S, 58° 28'W) founded 1977 as well as during Polish oceanic expeditions of the BIOMASS project (1981, 1983-1984, 1986-1987) and studies of the ice-edge zone (1988-1989) carried out in the Atlantic sector of Southern Ocean on board of the r/v "Profesor Siedlecki". All these expeditions were organized by the Department of Polar Research, Institute of Ecology, Polish Academy of Sciences headed by Prof. Dr. S. Rakusa-Suszczewski.
A lichenicolous fungus, Dactylospora dobrowolskii Olech et Alstrup, new to science is described. The paper reports on 9 species of lichens and lichenicolous fungi collected in the Bunger Oasis (East Antarctica).
Luticola muticopsis is a characteristic species of polar and subpolar regions. Its morphological variability is not yet precisely described. In the investigated population the cells from capitate to shortened, flat rounded tips were observed. The range of dimensions of specimens was 8.8-40.6 μm x 5.5-17.6 μm, striae 11-22/10 μm; this range considerably exceeded that found in holotype diagnosis.
O wyboistych dla kobiety polarnych ścieżkach, wyjątkowości porostów i sztuce spełniania marzeń mówi prof. zw. dr hab. Maria A. Olech z Zakładu Biologii Antarktyki Instytutu Biochemii i Biofizyki Polskiej Akademii Nauk.
This paper recapitulates Polish botanical and mycological research on terrestrial and freshwater Antarctic ecosystems carried out between 1977 and 2009. The main results are briefly summarized. The references encompass nearly 200 papers on floristics, taxonomy, biogeography, ecology, cytology, bioc hemistry, physiology and genetics of lichens, mosses, fungi, algae and vascular plants inhabiting soils, rocks and inland waters in the Antarctic.
The paper describes anatomical and physiological features of photobionts and mycobionts in Bryoria forsteri Olech & Bystrek, Caloplaca regalis (Vain.) Zahlbr., Cetraria aculeata (Schreb.) Fr., Ramalina terebrata Hook f. & Taylor, Sphaerophorus globosus (Huds.) Vain. and Usnea antarctica Du Rietz, collected in the Antarctic under varied weather conditions. Green algae from the genera Lobosphaera and Trebouxia were gathered in depressions of the cortex under the more resistant mycobiont hyphae. In photobiont cells a large amount of highly osmiophilic electron-dense PAS-negative material, lipid-like in character, was of particular interest. Similar material also filled certain areas of the aerial apoplast. A star-shaped chromatophore with central and lateral pyrenoids encompassed most of the photobiont protoplast in all the studied species. Regularly arranged thylakoids with evenly widened lumina along their entire length and osmiophilic lipid droplets adhering to their outer surfaces were visible within the pyrenoid. Inside the chloroplast, large protein inclusions tightly joined with the thylakoids were observed. The mycobionts were closely attached to each other another and with the photobionts by means of an outer osmiophilic wall layer, and formed intramural haustoria. Their protoplasts were filled with PAS-positive polysaccharides and a large amount of lipid-like substances. The photobionts were physiologically active and produced a large amount of electron-dense osmiophilic material, and PAS-positive starch grains were visible around their pyrenoids in the thalli collected in different weather conditions. The permanent reserves of nutritive materials deposited in the thalli enable these organisms to quickly begin and continue indispensable physiological processes in the extreme Antarctic conditions.
This paper reports the preliminary results from the studies on the scanning electron microscopical studies on chrysophycean cysts collected in ponds and streams of King George Island (South Shetlands). The cysts play an important role as the survival developmental stages. Fifteen morphotypes are described, six of which are new for science. Particular attention has been paid to the anatomy of the pore, collar structure and to the ornamentation of the cyst surface.
This paper reports the species of macromycetes collected on NW Sörkapp Land, Spitsbergen: all the species are new to the area. Brief notes on taxonomy, ecology and distribution of the species are provided.
The authors describe the scope of Polish studies in the field of biology and ecology carried on during 20 years of activity of Polish Antarctic Station. Principal results are briefly summarized and ample literature is presented.
This paper offers a comparison of Muriella decolor specimens from different geographical regions and habitats (limestone caves in Poland and ice denuded areas near the Ecology Glacier, King George Island, South Shetland Islands, West Antarctic). Morphological and cytological variability, ecology and life strategies of M. decolor were studied in fresh samples, and also in cultures grown on agar plates. The complete life cycle, with de − tailed ultrastructural (LM and TEM) analysis are presented. The electron microscopic observations prove that materials identified as M. decolor collected in Poland and the Antarctic have distinct ultrastructural features. These include the chloroplast lamella arrangement, mitochondrial cristae structure and the cell wall thickness.
During three austral summer seasons cargo, expeditioner clothes and equipment of the Polish Antarctic Expedition were examined for the presence of alien propagules. Detailed inspections were undertaken at the station buildings, searching for any invertebrates. During each austral summer fresh fruits and vegetables were also inspected. A total of 359 invertebrates and their remains were found in cargo transported to Arctowski Station, or caught in the station’s facilities. The majority of samples were classified as cultivation pests (26%), food pests (43%), wood−destroying pests (4%), domestic insects and arachnids (15%). Through supply of the research station a wide range of alien organisms can be accidentally transported and ultimately introduced to the Antarctic. This study has clearly demonstrated that almost all cargo items can be a potential vector for alien organisms. Species from a broad range of biological groups can be transported to the Antarctic and remain in a viable state.
During three austral summer seasons, dust and soil from clothes, boots and equipment of members of scientific expeditions and tourists visiting the Polish Antarctic Station Henryk Arctowski were collected and analysed for the presence of fungal propagules. Of a total of 60 samples, 554 colonies of fungi belonging to 19 genera were identified. Colonies of the genus Cladosporium , Penicillium and non−sporulating fungus ( Mycelia sterilia ) dominated in the examined samples. The microbiological assessment of air for the presence of fungi was also conducted at two points in the station building and two others outside the station. A total of 175 fungal colonies belonging to six genera were isolated. Colonies of the genus Penicillium were the commonest in the air samples. The potential epidemiological consequences for indigenous species as a result of unintentional transport of fungal propagules to the Antarctic biome are discussed in the light of rapid climate change in some parts of the Ant − arctic and adaptation of fungi to extreme conditions.
Diatom assemblages from small pools and creeks on the Ecology Glacier forefield have been investigated. It is the first study in the Admiralty Bay region after the thorough taxonomic revision of the non-marine Antarctic diatom flora. A total of 122 diatom taxa, belonging to 35 genera were identified. More than 55% of all observed species have a restricted Antarctic distribution. Another 15% have a marine origin. Nitzschia gracilis Hantzsch, N. homburgiensis Lange-Bertalot and Planothidium rostrolanceolatum Van de Vijver et al. dominated the flora. Based on a DCA analysis, samples were subdivided in three groups reflecting ecological differences. Several samples (group 1) showed a mixed freshwater/marine diatom composition and are typical for coastal pools. Two other groups were separated based on the amount of limnoterrestrial taxa indicating the temporary character of some of the pools.