New solutions in plant protection applications are still highly desirable. Aiming at higher efficiency, environmental safety and profitability of production which, in addition to reducing the costs of the application of plant protection products, limits the destruction of soil structure combined use of agrochemicals seems to be one of the most important method in modern agriculture. In 2016 and 2017, the Plant Protection Institute – National Research Institute in Poznań, Poland, conducted field experiments on the possibility of combining two popular herbicides used to control monocotyledonous weeds: pinoxaden and fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, with a two-component plant growth and development regulator (mepiquat chloride and prohexadione calcium) on KWS Ozon winter wheat. The tested substances were applied at the BBCH 24 stage of winter wheat – herbicide only, and at the BBCH 31 stage – a mix of herbicides with a plant growth and development regulator. Regardless of the method of application of pinoxaden (herbicide only or mixed), high effectiveness of Apera spica-venti control was obtained in both years of the study. The mix of pinoxaden with mepiquat chloride and prohexadione calcium reduced the wheat crop height to a similar extent as separate application of the substances. The combined application of fenoxaprop-P-ethyl with mepiquat chloride improved the effectiveness of wheat crop height control. The method of application of the substances had no significant effect on winter wheat yield. Grain yields harvested from plots treated with the above substances were significantly higher than control only in the case of high weed infestation of winter wheat. The technological value of wheat grain depended on the year of study, while the method of application did not have a significant impact on the evaluated parameters.
Between 2004 and 2017, multiple studies on the herbicide resistance of weeds were conducted by the Institute of Plant Protection – National Research Institute in Poland. Weed seeds, collected from fields located in various regions of Poland where herbicide use was ineffective, were used in studies conducted under greenhouse conditions. A total of 261 loose silky bent (Apera spica-venti L.) samples were found to be herbicide resistant, which translates to 52.4% of the fields under study. Nearly 50% of the analyzed samples exhibited resistance to sulfonylurea herbicides. Resistance to acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACCase) inhibitors was found in 18 fields, whereas resistance to photosystem II (PSII) inhibitors (isoproturon) was found in 12 fields. Herbicide resistance of blackgrass (Alopecurus myosuroides Huds.) occurred in 26 of the fields under study. In addition, resistance of wild oat (Avena fatua L.) to acetyl CoA carboxylase inhibitors occurred in 10 spring cereal crops. In the case of winter wheat, resistance of cornflower (Centaurea cyanus L.) to tribenuron-methyl occurred in 23 fields. Scentless chamomile (Matricaria inodora L.) and field poppy (Papaver rhoeas L.) were resistant to tribenuron-methyl in four and three fields, respectively, of winter wheat. In the case of sugar beet, three biotypes of fat hen (Chenopodium album L.) and two biotypes of redroot amaranth (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) were resistant to metamitron. Horseweed (Conyza canadensis L.), which grows on railway tracks, exhibited resistance to glyphosate. This paper reviews all studies conducted in Poland on weed resistance. Based on the results, maps of weed resistance in Poland were created.