Having increasingly tightened geological and mining conditions in which the extraction of copper ore deposits in Poland is conducted, ensuring effective and safe mining is presently becoming a key task and a significant challenge for mine operators, mainly in the field of ground support systems being the equivalent for the new geological/mining conditions. As one may expect, these conditions shall be characterized by higher values of the primary stress tensor elements as well as the lower deformability and higher strength of the rock mass surrounding the copper ore body. T his means that in the near future, the rock bursts problem will become one of the most important issues deciding on the economy and safety within the newly developed mining areas. T herefore developing a novel effective ductile ground support systems which could be able to control the rock mass movement in squeezing and burst-prone rock conditions is recommended. T his type of requirement may fulfil only ductile or, in other words, the kinetic energy-absorbing systems, which permit slowing down a movement of violently ejected rock blocks. T his paper’s objective is to present the idea of the development of a new type of an effective and low cost ductile resin anchored rockbolt system with smooth and of the square cross-section steel rod is formed in coil shape of different pitch. T he developed bolt prototypes have been tested underground in the G-11 section of the Rudna mine. Results of the pull-out tests, involving different bolts’ shapes and different sliding materials set on the rockbolts’ rods, have proved those bolts’ efficiency as an element of the ductile support system.
The blasting technique is currently the basic excavation method in Polish underground copper mines. Applied explosives are usually described by parameters determined on the basis of specific standards, in which the manner and conditions of the tests performance were defined. One of the factors that is commonly used to assess the thermodynamic parameters of the explosives is the velocity of detonation. The measurements of the detonation velocity are carried out according to European Standard EN 13631-14:2003 based on a point-to-point method, which determines the average velocity of detonation over a specified distance. The disadvantage of this method is the lack of information on the detonation process along the explosive sample. The other method which provides detailed data on the propagation of the detonation wave within an explosive charge is a continuous method. It allows to analyse the VOD traces over the entire length of the charge. The examination certificates of a given explosive usually presents the average detonation velocities, but not the characteristics of their variations depending on the density or blasthole diameter. Therefore, the average VOD value is not sufficient to assess the efficiency of explosives. Analysis of the abovementioned problem shows, that the local conditions in which explosives are used differ significantly from those in which standard tests are performed. Thus, the actual detonation velocity may be different from that specified by the manufacturer. This article presents the results of VOD measurements of a bulk emulsion explosive depending on the diameter of the blastholes carried out in a selected mining panel of the Rudna copper mine, Poland. The aim of the study was to determine the optimal diameter of the blastholes in terms of detonation velocity. The research consisted of diameters which are currently used in the considered mine.