Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have existed for many years and had assimilated many interesting innovations. Advances in electronics, radio transceivers, processes of IC manufacturing and development of algorithms for operation of such networks now enable creating energy-efficient devices that provide practical levels of performance and a sufficient number of features. Environmental monitoring is one of the areas in which WSNs can be successfully used. At the same time this is a field where devices must either bring their own power reservoir, such as a battery, or scavenge energy locally from some natural phenomena. Improving the efficiency of energy harvesting methods reduces complexity of WSN structures. This survey is based on practical examples from the real world and provides an overview of state-of-the-art methods and techniques that are used to create energyefficient WSNs with energy harvesting.
In this paper, some issues of building a reliable, distributed measurement system for monitoring of water quality in reservoir Lake Dobczyckie are presented. The system is based on a measurement station that has the shape of a floating buoy which is supposed to be at anchor on the reservoir. Wireless data transmission problems that were encountered during the development of the buoy, modeling a radio link, and measurements of actual signal strength on the reservoir are discussed. A mathematical approach to procedures of early situation assessment was conducted, and specialized procedures were designed for measurement stations of the system. It is also discussed how such computations can improve a qualitative assessment of system performance in terms of real-time messaging