In this article the structural and mechanical properties of grain refinement of Cu-Sn alloys with tin content of 10%, 15% and 20% using the KOBO method have been presented. The direct extrusion by KOBO (name from the combination of the first two letters of the names of its inventors – A. Korbel and W. Bochniak) method employs, during the course of the whole process, a phenomenon of permanent change of strain travel, realized by a periodical, two-sided, plastic metal torsion. Moreover the aim of this work was to study corrosion resistance. The microstructure investigations were performed using an optical microscope Olimpus GX71, a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). The mechanical properties were determined with INSTRON 4505/5500 machine. Corrosion tests were performed using «Autolab» set – potentiostat/galvanostat from EcoChemie B.V. with GPES software ver. 4.9. The obtained results showed possibility of KOBO deformation of Cu-Sn casting alloys. KOBO processing contributed to the refinement of grains and improved mechanical properties of the alloys. The addition of tin significantly improved the hardness. Meanwhile, with the increase of tin content the tensile strength and yield strength of alloys decrease gradually. Ductility is controlled by eutectoid composition and especially δ phase, because they initiate nucleation of void at the particle/matrix interface. No significant differences in the corrosion resistance between cast and KOBO processed materials were found.
Studies were carried out to determine the effect of heat treatment parameters on the plastic properties of unalloyed ausferritic ductile iron, such as the elongation and toughness at ambient temperature and at – 60 °C. The effect of austenitizing temperature (850, 900 and 950°C) and ausferritizing time (5 - 180 min.) at a temperature of 360°C was also discussed. The next step covered investigations of a relationship that is believed to exist between the temperature (270, 300, 330, 360 and 390 °C) and time (5, 10, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 240 min.) of the austempering treatment and the mechanical properties of unalloyed ausferritic ductile iron, when the austenitizing temperature is 950°C. The “process window” was calculated for the ADI characterized by high toughness corresponding to the EN-GJS800-10-RT and EN-GJS-900-8 grades according to EN-PN 1564 and to other high-strength grades included in this standard. Low-alloyed cast iron with the nodular graphite is an excellent starting material for the technological design of all the ausferritic ductile iron grades included in the PN-EN-1624 standard. The examined cast iron is characterized by high mechanical properties stable within the entire range of heat treatment parameters.
The subject of the study are alumina foams produced by gelcasting method. The results of micro-computed tomography of the foam samples are used to create the numerical model reconstructing the real structure of the foam skeleton as well as the simplified periodic open-cell structure models. The aim of the paper is to present a new idea of the energy-based assessment of failure strength under uniaxial compression of real alumina foams of various porosity with use of the periodic structure model of the same porosity. Considering two kinds of cellular structures: the periodic one, for instance of fcc type, and the random structure of real alumina foam it is possible to justify the hypothesis, computationally and experimentally, that the same elastic energy density cumulated in the both structures of the same porosity allows to determine the close values of fracture strength under compression. Application of finite element computations for the analysis of deformation and failure processes in real ceramic foams is time consuming. Therefore, the use of simplified periodic cell structure models for the assessment of elastic moduli and failure strength appears very attractive from the point of view of practical applications.
Animals as a source of organs and tissues for xenotransplantation could become a backup solution for the growing shortage of human donors. The presence of human xenoreactive anti- bodies directed against Galα1,3Gal antigens on the cell surface of a pig donor triggers the activa- tion of the complement leading to a hyperacute reaction. The development of genetic engineer- ing techniques has enabled the modification of genomes by knocking in and/or knocking out genes. In this paper, we report the generation of modified pigs with ZFN mediated disruption of the GGTA1 gene encoding the enzyme responsible for synthesis of Galα1,3Gal antigens. ZFN plasmids designed to target the exon 9 region of the pig GGTA1 gene encoding the catalytic domain were injected into the pronuclei of fertilized egg cells. Among 107 piglets of the F0 gene- ration analyzed, one female with 9-nt deletion in exon 9 of the GGTA1 gene was found. 13 of 33 piglets of the F1 generation represented the +/- GGTA1 genotype and 2 of 13 F2 piglets repre- sented the -/- GGTA1 genotype. No changes in the animals’ behavior, phenotype or karyotype were observed. Analysis confirmed heredity of the trait in all animals. A complex functional analysis of the modified animals, including flow cytometry, human serum cytotoxicity test and immunohistochemical detection, was performed to estimate the phenotype effect of genetic modification and this indicated an efficient GGTA1 knock-out in modified pigs.
Oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. ssp. oleifera Metzg) was the subject of the study in two forms: winter cv. 'Muller' (at the rosette stage - the first internode BBCH 30-31) and spring cv. `Feliks' (at the yellow bud stage BBCH 59). The main gas-exchange parameters, net photosynthetic rate (P-N) transpiration rate (E), stomatal conductance (g(s)), and intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) were measured on leaves prior to the piercing and immediately after the short-term piercing. The effect of mechanical wounding revealed different progress of the gas exchange process for the two forms. Piecewise linear regression with the breakpoint estimation showed that the plants at the same age but at a different vegetal stage, manage mechanical leaf-piercing differently. The differences concerned the stomatal conductance and transpiration changes since for rosette leaves the process consisted of five intervals with a uniform direction, while for stem leaves-of five intervals with a fluctuating direction. These parameters got stabilized within a similar time (220 mins) for both forms. The process of net photosynthetic rate was altered by the plant stages. 'Muller' plants at the rosette stage demonstrated dependence of P-N on time in log-linear progression: y (P-N) = 8.01+ 2.73 log(10) (x t(2)); 7 < t(2) < 220; R-2 = 0.96. For stem leaves of Teliks' plants the process of transpiration, in terms of directions, was convergent with the process of photosynthesis. Those two processes were synchronized from 1st to 114th min of the test (r = 0.85; p < 0.001) in plants at the rosette stage and from 26th to 148th min in stem leaves (r = 0.95; p < 0.001).
The results of studies on the use of magnesium alloy in modern Tundish for production of vermicular graphite cast irons were described. This paper describes the results of using a low-magnesium ferrosilicon alloy for the production of vermicular graphite cast irons. The paper presents a vermicular (and nodular) graphite in different walled castings. The results of trials have shown that the magnesium Tundish process can produce high quality vermicular graphite irons under the specific industrial conditions of Foundries - Odlewnie Polskie S.A. in Starachowice. In this work describes too preliminary studies on the oxygen state in cast iron and their effect on graphite crystallization.
During excavation of the cremation cemetery of urnfield culture in Legnica at Spokojna Street (Lower Silesia, Poland), dated to 1100-700 BC, the largest - so far in Poland – a collection of casting moulds from the Bronze Age was discovered: three moulds for axes casting made out of stone and five moulds for casting sickles, razors, spearhead and chisels, made out of clay. This archaeological find constituted fittings of foundrymen’s graves. In order to perform the complete analysis of moulds in respect of their application in the Bronze Age casting technology analytical methods, as well as, computer aided methods of technological processes were used. Macroscopic investigations were performed and the X-ray fluorescence spectrometry method was used to analyse the chemical composition and metal elements content in mould cavities. Moulds were subjected to three-dimensional scanning and due to the reverse engineering the geometry of castings produced in these moulds were obtained. The gathered data was used to perform design and research works by means of the MAGMA5 software. Various variants of the pouring process and alloys solidification in these archaeological moulds were simulated. The obtained results were utilised in the interpretation of the Bronze Age casting production in stone and clay moulds, with regard to their quality and possibility of casting defects occurrence being the result of these moulds construction. The reverse engineering, modelling and computer simulation allowed the analysis of moulds and castings. Investigations of casting moulds together with their digitalisation and reconstruction of casting technology, confirm the high advancement degree of production processes in the Bronze Age.
The paper presents results of the possibility of adapting the Althoff-Radtke test for High Chromium Cast Iron. The Althoff-Radtke test is a clump attempt used for steel. The Althoff-Radtke test has four different lengths of clamp which qualifies it as a test to quantitatively take into account different kinds of shrinkage ΔL. The length of the slot of the cracked corner and the length of each staple (50 - 350 mm) are the parameters tendency to cast cracks. Castings of white cast iron have a high tendency to hot cracking due to the large range of solidification temperatures, unfavorable kinetics parameters of shrinkage, and especially a lack of expansion before shrinkage. Shrinkage of high chromium white cast iron is similar to the shrinkage of cast steel, and is approximately 2%. Therefore it is important to test susceptibility to hot cracks. Research was carried out under industrial conditions. Four melts were performed, one of the initial chemical composition and the other three modified by different amounts of Fe-Ti, respectively, 0.25%, 0.5% and 0.75% Fe-Ti. The propensity for hot cracking was based on the observation of the dark surface in the corner of the sample. The study shows that the Althoff-Radtke test can be adapted to determine the tendency for hot cracking of high chromium cast iron. It should however be noted that the test results cannot be compared with those for other alloys.
The article presents the results of studies on the efficacy of water desalination (i.e. Elimination of NaCl ions from the solution) using graphene-polyamide composite membranes. The membrane used for filtration consists of a monolayer of polycrystalline graphene on a porous polyamide carrier support (nylon 66). The degree of desalination for an aqueous NaCl solution percolated through the membrane was 18%. In the future this type of membrane may replace the currently used reverse osmosis membranes.