The issue of air pollution, resulting to a large extent from the use of fossil fuels for energy purposes, is one of the most serious environmental threats in several Polish cities, but also outside of them. The amount of pollutants emitted into the atmosphere translates into the living conditions of the inhabitants. The utilization of geothermal energy, which is a renewable and ecological source of energy, brings noticeable improvement in the quality of atmospheric air, as evidenced by signiﬁcant ecological effects achieved by working geothermal district heating plants. The paper presents results of comprehensive considerations focused on assessing the effects of utilization of geothermal water and energy in Poland. Issues related to the implementation of exploration works aimed at acquiring geothermal water resources, as well as environmental aspects of the use of geothermal waters and energy were discussed. The undertaken considerations have been directed at assessing whether the use of such a kind of renewable energy resources could have an impact on improving the living conditions of the local community.