The impacts of long-term polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metal pollution on soil microbial communities functioning were studied in soils taken from an old coke plant. The concentrations of PAHs in the tested soils ranged from 171 to 2137 mg kg-1. From the group of tested heavy metals, concentrations of lead were found to be the highest, ranging from 57 to 3478 mg kg-1, while zinc concentrations varied from 247 to 704 mg kg-1 and nickel from 10 to 666 mg kg-1. High dehydrogenase, acid and alkaline phosphatase activities were observed in the most contaminated soil. This may indicate bacterial adaptation to long-term heavy metal and hydrocarbon contamination. However, the Community Level Physiological Profiles (CLPPs) analysis showed that the microbial functional diversity was reduced and influenced to a higher extent by some metals (Pb, Ni), moisture and conductivity than by PAHs.
Since ﬂuoroquinolone (FQ) antibiotics are extensively used both in human and veterinary medicine their accumulation in the environment is causing increasing concern. The aim of the study was to isolate a microbial consortium resistant to oﬂ oxacin and norﬂ oxacin and able to biodegrade both antibiotics. Green compost was used as a source of microorganisms. The biodegradation efﬁ ciency was monitored by changes of antibiotics concentrations and toxicity. The microbial consortium was composed of two bacterial isolates: Klebsiella pneumoniae (K2) and Achromobacter sp. (K3) and two fungi Candida manassasensis (K1) and Trichosporon asahii (K4). All the isolates were characterized as highly resistant to both antibiotics – oﬂ oxacin and norﬂ oxacin. FQs were supplied individually into the culture medium in the presence of an easily degradable carbon source – glucose. Biodegradation of norﬂ oxacin was much faster than oﬂ oxacin biodegradation. During 20 days of the experiment, the norﬂ oxacin level decreased by more than 80%. Oﬂ oxacin was generally biodegraded thereafter at relatively slow biodegradation rate. After 28 days the oﬂ oxacin level decreased by 60%. Similarly, the toxicity of biodegraded antibiotics decreased 4-fold and 3.5-fold for norﬂ oxacin and oﬂ oxacin, respectively. The ability of the bacterial-fungal consortium to degrade antibiotics and reduce toxicity could help to reduce environmental pollution with these pharmaceutical.