Activities of the Polish research gSDroups concerning gravity field modelling and gravimetry in a period of 2015–2018 are reviewed and summarised in this paper. The summary contains the results of research on the evaluation of GOCE-based global geopotential models (GGMs) in Poland and geoid modelling. Extensive research activities are observed in the field of absolute gravity surveys, in particular for the maintenance of national gravity control in Poland, Sweden, Denmark, the Republic of Ireland and in Northern Ireland as well as for geodynamics with special emphasis on metrological aspects in absolute gravimetry. Long term gravity variations were monitored in two gravimetric laboratories: the Borowa Gora Geodetic-Geophysical Observatory, and Jozefoslaw Astrogeodetic Observatory with the use of quasi-regular absolute gravity measurements as well as tidal gravimeter records. Gravity series obtained were analysed considering both local and global hydrology effects. Temporal variations of the gravity field were investigated using data from GRACE satellite mission as well as SLR data. Estimated variations of physical heights indicate the need for kinematic realization of reference surface for heights. Also seasonal variability of the atmospheric and water budgets in Poland was a subject of investigation in terms of total water storage using the GLDAS data. The use of repeatable absolute gravity data for calibration/validation of temporal mass variations derived from satellite gravity missions was discussed. Contribution of gravimetric records to seismic studies was investigated. The bibliography of the related works is given in references.
The existing Polish gravity control (POGK) established in the last few years of 20th century according to the international standards is spanned on 12 absolute gravity stations surveyed with four different types of absolute gravimeters. Relative measurements performed by various groups on nearly 350 points of POGK with the use of LaCoste&Romberg (LCR) gravimeters were linked to those 12 stations. The construction of the network, in particular the limited number of non homogeneously distributed absolute gravity stations with gravity determined with different instruments in different epochs is responsible for systematic errors in g on POGK stations. The estimate of those errors with the use of gravity measurements performed in 2007-2008 is given and their possible sources are discussed. The development of absolute gravity measurement technologies, in particular instruments for precise field absolute gravity measurements, provides an opportunity to establish new type of gravity control consisting of stations surveyed with absolute gravimeters. New gravity control planned to be established in 2012-2014 will consist of 28 fundamental points (surveyed with the FG5 – gravimeter), and 169 base points (surveyed with the A10 gravimeter). It will fulfill recent requirements of geodesy and geodynamics and it will provide good link to the existing POGK. A number of stations of the new gravity control with precisely determined position and height will form the national combined geodetic network. Methodology and measurement schemes for both absolute gravimeters as well as the technology for vertical gravity gradient determinations in the new gravity control were developed and tested. The way to assure proper gravity reference level with relation to ICAG and ECAG campaigns as well as local absolute gravimeter comparisons are described highlighting the role of metrology in the project. Integral part of the project are proposals of re-computation of old gravity data and their transformation to a new system (as 2nd order network) as well as a definition of gravity system as “zero-tide” system. Seasonal variability of gravity has been discussed indicating that the effects of environmental changes when establishing modern gravity control with absolute gravity survey cannot be totally neglected .