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Abstract

In the paper an application of differential evolution algorithm to design digital filters with non-standard amplitude characteristics is presented. Three filters with characteristics: linearly growing, linearly falling, and non-linearly growing are designed with the use of the proposed method. The digital filters obtained using this method are stable, and their amplitude characteristics fulfill all design assumptions.
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Abstract

In the paper an application of evolutionary algorithm to design and optimization of combinational digital circuits with respect to transistor count is presented. Multiple layer chromosomes increasing the algorithm efficiency are introduced. Four combinational circuits with truth tables chosen from literature are designed using proposed method. Obtained results are in many cases better than those obtained using other methods.
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Abstract

In the paper, the method of a numerical simulation concerning diagonal crack propagation in con-crete beams was presented. Two beams reinforced longitudinally but without shear reinforcement were considered during the Finite Element Method analysis. In particular, a nonlinear method was used to simulate the crack evaluation in the beams. The analysis was performed using the commercial program ANSYS. In the numerical simulation, the limit surface for concrete described by Willam and Warnke was applied to model the failure of concrete. To solve the FEM-system of equations, the Newton-Raphson method was used. As the results of FEM calculations, the trajectories of total stains and numerical images of smeared cracks were obtained for two analyzed beams: the slender beam S5 of leff = 1.8 m and the short beam S3k of leff = 1.1 m. The applied method allowed to generate both flexural vertical cracks and diagonal cracks in the shear regions. Some differences in the evaluation of crack patterns in the beams were observed. The greater number of flexural vertical cracks which penetrated deeper in the beam S5 caused the lower stiffness and the greater deformation in the beam S5 compared to the short beam S3k. Numerical results were compared with the experimental data from the early tests performed by Słowik [3]. The numerical simulation yielded very similar results as the experiments and it confirmed that the character of failure process altered according to the effective length of the member. The proposed numerical procedure was successfully verified and it can be suitable for numerical analyses of diagonal crack propagation in concrete beams.
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Abstract

Laboratory and field experiments have been conducted to study mobility of chromium and lead in floodplain sediments. The main goal of the research was to verify a hypothesis whether changes of chromium and lead concentration could be used to estimate the relative age of floodplain deposits. The basis for undertaking such research was the presence of weaving industry centers in the Obra River valley between the 16th and the 19th century and using Cr and Pb compounds in paint recipes. The Cr and Pb contents were also analyzed in three vertical profiles unaffected by the field experiments. The age of organic sediments in each of the profiles was determined using the radiocarbon analysis. The results of the laboratory experiments have shown that the highest contents of the elements were noted in the surface layer of the sediments placed in the column. However, the contents decreased during the last phase of the experiments and both vertical and horizontal migration of both elements was observed. A more intensive mobility was observed in the field test. Its cause could be the changes of the groundwater level, floodplain inundation and pH conditions in alluvial deposits. Such processes may have influenced migration of the compounds originating from the weaving industry production; Cr and Pb contents detected in the profiles unaffected by the field experiment were too small to be used for relative dating of alluvial deposits. Moreover, the alluvial deposits with increased contents of the studied elements may be older than the period of the weaving industry development. Cr and Pb mobility was especially intensive in the profiles situated within the near bed zone of the floodplain due to regular inundation, and the activity of erosion and accumulation processes entraining the studied elements back to transport in the river bed.
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