From the annexation of the Polish territories in the thirteenth century, Neumark and Torzym Province (Land Sternberg) became districts of the Margraviate of Brandenburg. Neumark belonged temporarily (1402–1454) to the Teutonic Order. From the very beginning, the two regions clearly varied in their coin circulation. The earliest Brandenburgian denier fi nds from east of the Oder River date to the last decade of the thirteenth century. However, the most important differences in the coin circulation became noticeable only after the middle of the fourteenth century.
The suburb of Kalisz, called the Old Town, is a historical craft and trade settlement located near the ducal castle — the early medieval town of Kalisz. In 2001, during archaeological excavations a number of coins were discovered at this location. Six of them are the subject of this paper. They are bracteates struck in the second half of the 13th century, probably in Greater Poland during the reign of Przemysł II (†1296).
Eight coins (seven medieval and one modern) were found during archaeological rescue excavation on the Main Market Square in Kalisz in 2012. Four coins (including one fragment) are hohlpfennigs, probably all of them are of Polish origin (from Greater Poland?) and date from the thirteenth-fourteenth century. The next three are: a halved penny, perhaps from the end of the thirteenth century, West Pomeranian penny and, probably, a Silesian heller from the fourteenth-fifteenth century. The modern coin is a heavily worn copper shilling by John Casimir (1648–1668).