Bullying at work is a long-standing area of research interest that requires investigation of the role of the individual exposed to systematic negative behaviour. Studies using cross-sectional samples and broad personality measures have found some distinguishing personal characteristics of employees who are bullied compared to others. Few, however have applied theoretical frameworks to explain why personality can play a part in why an individual ends up at the receiving end of bullying and harassment at work. This article applies an overall and specific theoretical model, the vulnerability thesis, to investigating the role of temperament in relation to workplace bullying. The results show that (1) some employees exposed to bullying at work also acted as perpetrators (provocative victims), that (2) exposure to bullying at work is connected with temperamental emotional vulnerability, and that (3) hostility and self-oriented aggression mediate the role of personality in the form of temperament in relation to workplace bullying. Strengths and weaknesses and potential practical implications for helpers of employees exposed to bullying at work are discussed.
This paper presents possibilities for of numerical modelling of biomass combustion in a commercially available boiler. A sample of biomass was tested with respect to its physical and chemical properties. Thermogravimetry studies of biomass were carried out. Computer simulation makes it possible to analyse complex phenomena which are otherwise difficult to observe. The aim of this work was to model biomass combustion to predict the amount of pollutants generated (NOx, CO, SO2) in the exhaust gases coming out from boilers The calculations were made using the CHEMKIN program. Results of calculations were performed taking into account the influence of temperature, pressure and residence time.
Waste disposal is imposed by the European Union under Treaty of Accession concerning waste management order. One of the waste disposal methods is thermal utilisation. The paper presents an investigation of sewage sludge briquettes used as a fuel in combustion process. The research study was carried out on samples taken from the Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant in Bochnia. Briquettes with lime were formed. The analysis of the elementary chemical composition of municipal sewage sludge, the composition of the ash and thermogravimetric analysis were carried out. The results indicate that the prepared briquettes had sufficient fuel properties.
The paper aims to confirm the syngas application as a reburning fuel to reduce e.g. NO emission during natural gas combustion. The main aim of this modelling work was to predict pollutants generated in the exhaust gases and to indicate the influence of the syngas on the natural gas combustion process. The effect of residence time of fuel-air mixture was also been performed. Calculations were made with CHEMIKN-PRO for reburning process using syngas. The boundary conditions of the reburning process were based on experimental investigations. The addition of 5, 10, 15 and 19% of reburning fuel into natural gas combustion was studied. The effects of 0.001 to 10 s of residence time and the addition of 5, 10, and 15% of syngas on combustion products were determined. The performed numerical tests confirmed that co-combustion of the natural gas with syngas (obtained from sewage sludge gasification) in the reburning process is an efficient method of NOx reduction by c.a. 50%. Syngas produced from sewage sludge can be utilised as a reburning fuel.
The aim of the paper is to evaluate the development of the Geoeducation Center in Kielce and to define ways and stage of creating its tourist brand. It is a new tourist attraction in the Świętokrzyskie region, which also plays role of informal education. Every year, this object is visited by approximately 40,000. tourists. Research has shown that the Geoeducation Center from the beginning of its operation consistently creates all the elements that make up the brand equity: awareness, perceived quality, associations and loyalty.