In the paper the use of the artificial neural network to the control of the work of heat treating equipment for the long axisymmetric steel elements with variable diameters is presented. It is assumed that the velocity of the heat source is modified in the process and is in real time updated according to the current diameter. The measurement of the diameter is performed at a constant distance from the heat source (∆z = 0). The main task of the model is control the assumed values of temperature at constant parameters of the heat source such as radius and power. Therefore the parameter of the process controlled by the artificial neural network is the velocity of the heat source. The input data of the network are the values of temperature and the radius of the heated element. The learning, testing and validation sets were determined by using the equation of steady heat transfer process with a convective term. To verify the possibilities of the presented algorithm, based on the solve of the unsteady heat conduction with finite element method, a numerical simulation is performed. The calculations confirm the effectiveness of use of the presented solution, in order to obtain for example the constant depth of the heat affected zone for the geometrically variable hardened axisymmetric objects.
In this paper crystallization studies of low-alloyed construction cast steel were presented for different additions of chromium, nickel and molybdenum modified with vanadium and titanium. Studies were conducted using developed TDA stand, which additionally enabled evaluation of cooling rate influence on crystallization process of investigated alloys.
The paper presents the research results of horizontal continuous casting of ingots of aluminium alloy containing 2% wt. silicon (AlSi2). Together with the casting velocity (velocity of ingot movement) we considered the influence of electromagnetic stirring in the area of the continuous casting mould on refinement of the ingot’s primary structure and their selected mechanical properties, i.e. tensile strength, yield strength, hardness and elongation. The effect of primary structure refinement and mechanical properties obtained by electromagnetic stirring was compared with refinement obtained by using traditional inoculation, which consists in introducing additives, i.e. Ti, B and Sr, to the metal bath. On the basis of the obtained results we confirmed that inoculation done by electromagnetic stirring in the range of the continuous casting mould guarantees improved mechanical properties and also decreases the negative influence of casting velocity, thus increasing the structure of AlSi2 continuous ingots.
In paper is presented results of studies concerning ingot of Al with a purity of 99.5% cast with use of stand of horizontal continuous casting. Mainly together with casting velocity was considered influence of electromagnetic stirrer, which was placed in continuous casting mould on refinement of ingots structure and theirs usability to plastic deformation. Effect of structure refinement and usability to plastic deformation obtained by influence of electromagnetic stirring was compared with refinement obtained by use of traditional inoculation, which consists in introducing of additives i.e. Ti and B to metal bath. On the basis of obtained results was affirmed that inoculation realized by electromagnetic stirring in range of continuous casting mould guarantees improvement in structure refinement and usability to rolling of pure Al continuous ingots.
In paper is presented idea of construction and influence of selected parts of stand of horizontal continuous casting on quality of pure Al and AlSi2 alloy ingots. The main parts of the made stand belong to induction furnace, which is also tundish, water cooled continuous casting mould, system of recooling, system of continuous ingot drawing and cutting. Mainly was considered influence of electromagnetic stirrer, which was placed in continuous casting mould on refinement of ingots structure. Effect of structure refinement obtained by influence of electromagnetic stirring was compared with refinement obtained by use of traditional inoculation, which consists in introducing of additives i.e. Ti and B to metal bath. The results of studies show possibility of effective refinement of Al and AlSi2 alloy primary structure, only with use of horizontal electromagnetic field and without necessity of application of inoculants. This method of inoculation is important, because inoculants decrease the degree of purity and electrical conductivity of pure aluminum and moreover are reason of point cracks formation during rolling of ingots.
The paper presents an innovative method of creating the layered castings. The innovation relies on application the 3D printing insert obtaining in SLM (selective laser melting) method. This type of scaffold insert made from pure Ti powder, was placed into mould cavity directly before pouring by grey cast iron. In result of used method was obtained grey cast iron casting with surface layer reinforced by titanium carbides. In range of studies were carried out metallographic researches using light microscope and scanning electron microscope, microhardness measurements and abrasive wear resistance. On the basis of obtaining results was stated that there is a possibility of reinforcing surface layer of the grey cast iron casting by using 3D printing scaffold insert in the method of mould cavity preparation. Moreover there was a local increase in hardness and abrasive wear resistance in spite of the precipitation of titanium carbides in surface layer of grey cast iron. While the usable properties of composite surface layer obtained in result of use of the method presented in the paper, strongly depend of dimensions of scaffold insert, mainly parameters Re and Ri.
In the paper the results and analysis of abrasive wear studies were shown for two grades of cast steels: low-alloyed cast steel applied for heavy machinery parts such as housing, covers etc. and chromium cast steels applied for kinetic nodes of pin-sleeve type. Studies were performed using the modified in Department of Foundry pin-on-disc method.