The phase composition of the cement paste phase of concrete containing fly ash from circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) was studied. The motivation was to broaden the knowledge concerning the microstructure and the durability of concrete containing new by-products from the power industry. Several air-entrained concrete mixes were designed with constant water to binder ratio and with substitution of a part of the cement by CFBC fly ash (20%, 30% or 40% by weight). X-ray diffraction tests and thermal analysis (DTG, DTA and TG) were performed on cement paste specimens taken from concrete either stored in water at 18° C or subjected to aggressive freeze-thaw cyclic action. The evaluation of the phase composition as a function of CFBC fly ash content revealed significant changes in portlandite content and only slight changes in the content of ettringite. The cyclic freeze-thaw exposure did not have any significant influence on the phase composition of concrete with and without the CFBC fly ash.
In the Admiralty Bay 36 taxa of macroalgae were found. Among them the most common were: green alga Monostroma hariotti, red algae — Georgiella confluens, Iridaea cordata, Leptosarca simplex and Plocamium cartilagineum, and brown algae — Adenocystis utricularis, Ascoseira mirabilis, Desmarestia anceps, D. ligulata, D. menziesii and Himatothallus grandifolius. The bottom surface covered with macroalgae (in the orthogonal projection on the water mirror) amounts to 36,9 km2 i.e. 31% of the total surface of the bay. In the central part of the Admiralty Bay the macroalgae aggregations occupy 35% of the bottom surface and are most abundant in respect to the density, biomass, number of taxa (33) and diversity. There were distinguished 3 zones of vertical distribution of phytobenthos in the Admiralty Bay. I zone includes the macroalgae in epilittoral, littoral and sublittoral to the depth of 10 m. II and III zones are situated in sublittoral within the depths of 10 60 m and 60—90 m, respectively. Each zone is characterized by the occurrence of different aggregation of taxa. The bottom areas belong to I, II and III zone of macroalgae make 28%, 64% and 8% respectively in relation to the total surface of phytobenthos in the bay. Vertical range of the distinguished zones varies in different parts of the Bay in relation to the bottom character. Macroalgae occur down to the depth of 90 —100 m. The composition of the macroalgae flora evidences for its transitory character between the benthic subantarctic flora and that of the areas adjacent to the Antarctic continent.
In 2011, the Miedzi Copper Corporation (MCC) initiated its exploration program involving deep Cu-Ag deposits in the Fore-Sudetic Monocline. A very vast study area was adopted, along with the use of a wide range of research instruments. In the years 2011–2013 the exploration of MCC involved 21 concession areas. The location of concessions for exploration as well as exploration and prospecting was based on the known prognostic and hypothetical areas with confirmed contact of the Rote Fäule facies with the reduced facies, placed in the proximity of the Zechstein elevations. In 2012 and 2013, historical boreholes drilled mainly by the petroleum industry were logged, and in cases where the preservation of rock material allowed, samples were collected for chemical analyses. Moreover, a wide range of specialized examinations was performed, involving organic chemistry, coal macerals, vitrinite reflectance and petrography, with a particular emphasis on the Rock Eval method. The latter allows the presence of the so-called strong Rote Fäule associated with the presence of the richest mineralized horizons to be established. It was equally important for the purpose of exploration to perform the reprocessing of geophysical data using the innovative method of effective reflection coefficients. This allows transforming a conventional seismic image into an impulse form of seismic records, meaning a temporal sequence of coefficients, whose sections can be correlated with the logs of historical boreholes in order to trace the course of lithological series. This method provides a much higher accuracy for determining structural elements crucial for exploration than before, suggesting the presence of various tectonic phenomena important for mineralization. As a result, a more detailed mineralization distribution model was obtained and the so-called sweet spots were pinpointed, becoming an object of further drilling exploration. The number of active concessions was reduced to 6, which resulted largely not just from the absence of ore, but also from economic premises. The drilling program initiated in 2013 and still continued today allowed the discovery and preliminary documentation of three copper and silver deposits in the Fore-Sudetic Monocline. These are the Mozów and Sulmierzyce deposits, where the presence of prospective areas was previously recorded, as well as the Nowa Sól deposit, discovered in the so-called green field, where no ore exploration was previously conducted. At the current stage of identification, each of these deposits contains resources exceeding 5 million tons of equivalent copper, and the performed economic analyses indicate the viability of their extraction using the modern methods of shaft sinking, air conditioning and waste management.
Coarse-scale studies on chlorophyll a distribution in a region covering the Scotia Front zone showed an increased chlorophyll content and its deeper distribution at stations situated in the frontal zone. The sources of chlorophyll α were probably both the phytoplankton released from melting ice as well as spring bloom.
Operational characteristic of wireless WiMax and IEEE 802.11x systems in underground mine environments The paper presents research results pertaining to transmission parameters of wireless communication systems, based on WiMax and IEEE 802.11x radio interfaces. Research was performed in severe operating conditions of an underground mine - testing various parameters, such as: throughput, delays and maximum range.
The paper describes the construction, operation and test results of three most popular interpolators from a viewpoint of time-interval (TI) measurement systems consisting of many tapped-delay lines (TDLs) and registering pulses of a wide-range changeable intensity. The comparison criteria include the maximum intensity of registered time stamps (TSs), the dependency of interpolator characteristic on the registered TSs’ intensity, the need of using either two counters or a mutually-complementing pair counter-register for extending a measurement range, the need of calculating offsets between TDL inputs and the dependency of a resolution increase on the number of used TDL segments. This work also contains conclusions about a range of applications, usefulness and methods of employing each described TI interpolator. The presented experimental results bring new facts that can be used by the designers who implement precise time delays in the field-programmable gate arrays (FPGA).
Most systems used in quantum physics experiments require the efficient and simultaneous recording different multi-photon coincidence detection events. In such experiments, the single-photon gated counting systems can be applicable. The main sources of errors in these systems are both instability of the clock source and their imperfect synchronization with the excitation source. Below, we propose a solution for improvement of the metrological parameters of such measuring systems. Thus, we designed a novel integrated circuit dedicated to registration of signals from a photon number resolving detectors including a phase synchronizer module. This paper presents the architecture of a high-resolution (~60 ps) digital phase synchronizer module cooperating with a multi-channel coincidence counter. The main characteristic feature of the presented system is its ability to fast synchronization (requiring only one clock period) with the measuring process. Therefore, it is designed to work with various excitation sources of a very wide frequency range. Implementation of the phase synchronizer module in an FPGA device enabled to reduce the synchronization error value from 2.857 ns to 214.8 ps.
The designing process of high resolution time interval measurement systems creates many problems that need to be eliminated. The problems are: the latch error, the nonlinearity conversion, the different duty cycle coefficient of the clock signal, and the clock signal jitter. Factors listed above affect the result of measurement. The FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) structure also imposes some restrictions, especially when a tapped delay line is constructed. The article describes the high resolution time-to-digital converter, implemented in a FPGA structure, and the types of errors that appear there. The method of minimization and processing of data to reduce the influence of errors on the measurement is also described.
The ultrasonic flowmeter which is described in this paper, measures the transit of time of an ultrasonic pulse. This device consists of two ultrasonic transducers and a high resolution time interval measurement module. An ultrasonic transducer emits a characteristic wave packet (transmit mode). When the transducer is in receive mode, a characteristic wave packet is formed and it is connected to the time interval measurement module inputs. The time interval measurement module allows registration of transit time differences of a few pulses in the packet. In practice, during a single measuring cycle a few time-stamps are registered. Moreover, the measurement process is also synchronous and, by applying the statistics, the time interval measurement uncertainty improves even in a single measurement. In this article, besides a detailed discussion on the principle of operation of the ultrasonic flowmeter implemented in the FPGA structure, also the test results are presented and discussed
We determined the level of flavonoids, citric acid and ascorbic acid in hips of rose species from the Caninae section occurring in Poland. We performed phytochemical analyses of 75 samples representing 11 species: Rosaagrestis Savi, R. canina L., R. dumalis Bechst., R. glauca Pourret, R. inodora Fries, R. jundzillii Besser, R. rubiginosa L., R. sherardii Davies, R. tomentosa Sm., R. villosa L. and R. zalana Wiesb. Flavonoid content was determined spectrophotometrically, and organic acid concentrations by HPLC. The content of the studied compounds varied greatly. Interspecific differences in the amount of flavonoids and ascorbic acid were highly significant. The most common species, Rosa canina, showed low average content of vitamin C (0.51 g/100 g of dry matter) and flavonoids (41 mg/100 g DM) and high content of citric acid (3.48 g/100 g DM). Ascorbic acid was highest in R. villosa hips (avg. 2.25 g/100 g DM), flavonoids were highest in R. rubiginosa (72 mg/100 g DM), and citric acid was highest in R. tomentosa (4.34 g/100 g DM). Flavonoid level correlated negatively with the amount of citric acid (r=-0.47, p<0.001). Cluster analysis of rose species based on the content of the investigated compounds confirmed the validity of the division of sect. Caninae into three subsections: Rubiginosae, Vestitae and Rubrifoliae. The phytochemical variation of these roses reflects their probable phylogenetic relationships as determined from morphology.
W obliczu rewolucji technologii informatycznych badacze nauk społecznych mają przed sobą nie lada wyzwanie. Oto bowiem wraz ze zwiększającą się popularnością Internetu pojawiły się ogromne ilości danych zawierających opinie, poglądy i zainteresowania jego użytkowników. Chociaż analiza tych danych stawia przed badaczami poważne problemy metodologiczne, za ich użyciem przemawia fascynujący materiał powstający bez ingerencji badaczy. Dużą część tego materiału stanowią dane z najpopularniejszej na świecie wyszukiwarki Google. Co minutę jej użytkownicy ze wszystkich miejsc na świecie zadają ponad 3 miliony zapytań, które są następnie klasyﬁkowane i udostępniane za pomocą aktualizowanych na bieżąco narzędzi. W artykule tym omówione są próby adaptacji tych danych do potrzeb nauk społecznych, a także dotychczasowe badania na ten temat. Omówione są także praktyczne aspekty pracy z narzędziami Google’a: Google Trends oraz Google Keyword Planner. Artykuł jest przeznaczony przede wszystkim dla badaczy nauk społecznych zainteresowanych internetowymi źródłami Big Data oraz wykorzystaniem tych danych w pracy naukowej.
The results of shielding effectiveness (SE) measurements of textile materials containing metal by the free-space transmission technique (FSTT) in the 1-26.5 GHz frequency range are presented in the paper. It is shown that experimental data processing using time-domain gating (TDG) makes it possible to effectively remove diffracted and reflected components from the desired signal. The comparison with the results obtained by other techniques, namely modified FSTT with TDG and coaxial line probe technique (ASTM D4935-99) is given. The comparison shows that the proposed technique gives more reasonable results while the measurement set-up is simpler in realization.
Introduction: The prolongation of the life of men results in the growing number of people suffering from benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). In 2010, BPH concerned more than 200 million men in the whole world, which at that time made up 6% of the population of men at large. Currently, the population of men in the world amounts about three billion six hundred million. The modern surgical treatment of BPH consists of minimally invasive techniques, including laser systems. Aim: Evaluation of the eff ectiveness of photoselective vaporization of the prostate (PVP) on the basis of subjective parameters assessed by patients using IPSS and QoL questionnaires as well as objective parameters obtained from results of urodynamic tests. Material and Methods: Between 2012 and 2015, 120 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia were included in the study and underwent PVP. Finally, 77 patients were included in the study. In all patients, IPSS and QoL sheets were carried out 1, 6 and 12 months, and urodynamic tests 12 months after the surgical treatment. Results: The statistically signifi cant change in the value of each parameter assessed: decrease in the IPSS, QoL, PVR, Pmax, Pop, the degree of obstruction according to Schäfer and ICS nomogram, and an increase in the values of Qmax and Qave. Conclusions: Photoselective vaporization of the prostate is an eff ective method of therapy in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia.
Respiratory disturbances frequently accompany stuttering. Their influence on lung ventilation can be assessed by measurement of the end-tidal CO2 concentration (EtCO2). The effectiveness of the CO2-based visual feedback method of breath regulation (VF) designed for stuttering therapy was tested in this study. The aim of the study was to answer the question if the VF helps to reduce respiratory disturbances in stuttering and increase speech fluency. 20 stuttering volunteers aged 13-45 years took part in the 3-parts test consisting of: 1. speaking without any techniques improving speech fluency, 2. learning the VF method, 3. VF-assisted speaking. The CO2/time signal and an acoustic signal of an utterance were recorded during the test. Significant increase of FE - the factor of breath ergonomics during speaking (based on both signals), from 47% to 71% (P < 0.01), and significant decrease of %SS - the percent of syllables stuttered, from 14% to 10% (P < 0.01) were received for VF-assisted utterances compared to the utterances without VF assistance. The results indicate that the VF can help to eliminate respiratory disturbances in stuttering and increase speech fluency.