Submitted work deals with the analysis of reoxidation processes for aluminium alloys. Due to the aluminium high affinity to the oxygen, the oxidation and consequently reoxidation will occur. Paper focuses on the gating system design in order to suppress and minimize reoxidation processes. Design of the gating system is considered as one of the most important aspect, which can reduce the presence of reoxidation products - bifilms. The main reason for the reoxidation occurrence is turbulence during filling of the mold. By correctly designing the individual parts of gating system, it is possible to minimize turbulence and to ensure a smooth process of the mold filling. The aim of the work is an innovative approach in the construction of gating system by using unconventional elements, such as a naturally pressurized system or vortex elements. The aim is also to clarify the phenomenon during the gating system filling by visualization with the aid of ProCAST numerical simulation software. ProCAST can calculate different indicators which allow to better quantify the filling pattern.
An attempt was made to determine phase composition of commercial aluminium alloys using X-ray diffraction. Samples for phase composition analysis were selected from the group of aluminium alloys covered by the EN 573-3:2013 standard . Representative samples were taken from eight groups of alloys with different chemical composition (at least one sample from each group). The diffraction intensity was measured with a standard X-ray diffractometer in Bragg-Brentano geometry in a way that allowed identification of the weakest diffraction peaks. As a results of the performed research it has been shown that X-ray phase analysis can be used to identify the matrix of aluminium alloys, Si and crystalline intermetallic phases such as Mg2Si, Al93.38Cu6.02Fe24Si16.27, Al4.01MnSi0.74, MgZn2, Al17(Fe3.2Mn0.8)Si2, Al65Cu20Fe15, and Cu3Mn2Al. The detectability limit of the above-mentioned phases is better than 0.5%. The research has also shown that X-ray phase analysis is applicable in the investigation of phase transformations taking place in aluminium alloys.
What is the limit of improvement the structure obtained directly from the liquid state, with possible heat treatment (supersaturation and aging)? This question was posed by casting engineers who put arbitrary requirements on reducing the DAS (Dendrite Arm Spacing) length to less than a dozen microns. The results of tests related to modification of the surface microstructure of AlSi7Mg alloy casting treated by laser beam and the rapid remelting and solidification of the superficial casting zone, were presented in the paper. The local properties of the surface treated with a laser beam concerns only a thickness ranging from a fraction to a single mm. These local properties should be considered in the aspect of application on surfaces of non-machined castings. Then the excellent surface layer properties can be used. The tests were carried out on the surface of the casting, the surface layer obtained in contact with the metal mould, after the initial machining (several mm), was treated by the laser beam. It turned out that the refinement of the microstructure measured with the DAS value is not available in a different way, i.e. directly by casting. The experimental-simulation validation using the Calcosoft CAFE (Cellular Automaton Finite Element) code was applied.
The article presents the results of research concerning to AlCu4MgSi alloy ingots produced using horizontal continuous casting process. The presented research was focused on the precise determination of phase composition of the precipitates formed during the solidification of ingots and the analysis of their thermal stability. In order to assess the morphology of precipitates in the AlCu4MgSi alloy, data obtained by using a computer simulation of thermodynamic phenomena were compiled with results obtained using advanced research techniques, i.e. High-temperature X-ray diffraction (HT-XRD), SEM-EDS, Thermal and derivative analysis (TDA) and Glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GD OES). SEM observations and analysis of chemical composition in micro-areas showed that the precipitates are mainly intermetallic θ-Al2Cu and β-Mg2Si phases, and also presence of Al19Fe4MnSi2 intermetallic phase was confirmed by X-ray diffraction studies. Based on the prepared Thermo-Calc simulation data, high-temperature X-ray diffraction measurements were conducted.
The aim of this paper was to test currently available on the market products for sealing anodic oxide coatings as well as to test the use of other alternative substances improving the sealing process. The ability to seal in 10 different solutions and the quality of the seal has been tested. The influence of the applied preparations on corrosion resistance and resistance to strongly alkaline environment was also investigated. Based on the results obtained, satisfactory results were archived for the sample sealed in a IMN-OML (Institute of Non-Ferrous Metals in Gliwice, Light Metals Division) solution sealant and in solution of nickel acetate in a medium-temperature process. Sealing by means of nickel acetate solutions is economically justified, and its use allows the process temperature to be lowered. When it comes to resistance to alkalis, samples sealed in IMN-OML sealant are the best. Commercial solutions have also achieved positive results in all tests.
The paper presents results of bend tests at elevated temperatures of aluminium alloy EN AC-44200 (AlSi12) based composite materials reinforced with aluminium oxide particles. The examined materials were manufactured by squeeze casting. Preforms made of Al2O3 particles, with volumetric fraction 10, 20, 30 and 40 vol.% of particles joined with sodium silicate bridges were used as reinforcement. The preforms were characterised by open porosity ensuring proper infiltration with the EN AC-44200 (AlSi12) liquid alloy. The largest bending strength was found for the materials containing 40 vol.% of reinforcing ceramic particles, tested at ambient temperature. At increased test temperature, bending strength Rg of composites decreased in average by 30 to 50 MPa per 100°C of temperature increase. Temperature increase did not significantly affect cracking of the materials. Cracks propagated mainly along the interfaces particle/matrix, with no effect of the particles falling-out from fracture surfaces. Direction of cracking can be affected by a small number of agglomerations of particles or of non-reacted binder. In the composites, the particles strongly restrict plastic deformation of the alloy, which leads to creation of brittle fractures. At elevated temperatures, however mainly at 200 and 300°C, larger numbers of broken, fragmented particles was observed in the vicinity of cracks. Fragmentation of particles occurred mainly at tensioned side of the bended specimens, in the materials with smaller fraction of Al2O3 reinforcement, i.e. 10 and 20 vol.%.
The paper deals with the impact of technological parameters on the heat transfer coefficient and microstructure in AlSi12 alloy using squeeze casting technology. The casting with crystallization under pressure was used, specifically direct squeeze casting method. The goal was to affect crystallization by pressure with a value 100 and 150 MPa. The pressure applied to the melt causes a significant increase of the coefficient of heat transfer between the melt and the mold. There is an increase in heat flow by approximately 50% and the heat transfer coefficient of up to 100-fold, depending on the casting conditions. The change in cooling rate influences the morphology of the silicon particles and intermetallic phases. A change of excluded needles to a rod-shaped geometry with significantly shorter length occurs when used gravity casting method. By using the pressure of 150 MPa during the crystallization process, in the structure can be observed an irregular silica particles, but the size does not exceed 25 microns.
The article discusses the weldment to casting conversion process of rocker arm designed for operation in a special purpose vehicle to obtain a consistency of objective functions, which assume the reduced weight of component, the reduced maximum effort of material under the impact of service loads achieved through topology modification for optimum strength distribution in the sensitive areas, and the development of rocker arm manufacturing technology. As a result of conducted studies, the unit weight of the item was reduced by 25%, and the stress limit values were reduced to a level guaranteeing safe application.
The research described in this contribution is focused on fractographic analysis of the fracture area of newly developed eutectic silumin type AlSi9NiCuMg0.5 (AA 4032), which was developed and patented by a team of staff of the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering. The paper presents determination of the cause of casting cracks in operating conditions. Fractographic analysis of the fracture area, identification of the structure of the casting, identification of structural components on the surface of the fracture surface and chemical analysis of the material in the area of refraction were performed within the experiment. Al-Si alloys with high specific strength, low density, and good castability are widely used in pressure-molded components for the automotive and aerospace industries. The results shown that the inter-media phases Fe-Al and Fe-Si in aluminium alloys lead to breakage across the entire casting section and a crack that crossed the entire cross section, which was confirmed by EDS analysis.
The paper deals with squeeze casting technology. For this research a direct squeeze casting method has been chosen. As an experimental material, the AlSi12 and AlSi7Mg0.3 alloys were used. The influence of process parameters variation (pouring temperature, mold temperature) on mechanical properties and structure will be observed. For the AlSi7Mg0.3 alloy, a pressure of 30 MPa was used and for the AlSi12 alloy 50 MPa. The thicknesses of the individual walls were selected based on the use of preferred numbers and series of preferred numbers (STN ISO 17) with the sequence of 3.15 mm, 4 mm, 5 mm, 6.3 mm and 8 mm. The width of each wall was 22 mm and length 100 mm. The mechanical properties (Rm, A5) for individual casting parameters and their individual areas of different thicknesses were evaluated. For the AlSi7Mg0.3 alloy, the percentage increase of the tensile strength was up to 37% and the elongation by 400% (at the 8 mm thickness of the casting). For the AlSi12 alloy, the strength increased from 8 to 20% and the tensile strength increased from 5 to 85%. The minimum thickness of the wall to influence the casting properties by pressure was set to 5 mm (based on the used casting parameters). Due to the effect of the pressure during crystallization, a considerable refinement and uniformity of the casting structure occured, also a reduction in the size of the eutectic silicate-eliminated needles was observed.
The paper deals with the impact of technological parameters on the mechanical properties and microstructure in AlSi12 alloy using squeeze casting technology. The casting with crystallization under pressure was used, specifically direct squeeze casting method. The goal was to affect crystallization by pressure with a value 100 and 150 MPa. From the experiments we can conclude that operating pressure of 100 MPa is sufficient to influence the structural characteristics of the alloy AlSi12. The change in cooling rate influences the morphology of the silicon particles and intermetallic phases. A change of excluded needles to a rod-shaped geometries with significantly shorter length occurs when used gravity casting method. At a pressure of 100 MPa was increased of tensile strength on average of 20%. At a pressure of 150 MPa was increased of tensile strength on average of 30%. During the experiment it was also observed, that increasing difference between the casting temperature and the mold temperature leads to increase of mechanical properties.
The paper presents research on the effects of soft annealing parameters on a change of the impact strength KC and Brinell hardness (HB) of the EN AC-AlSi11 alloy. The research has been performed according to the trivalent testing plan for two input parameters – temperature in the range between 280°C and 370°C and time in the range between 2 and 8 hours. The application of such heat treatment improves the plasticity of the investigated alloy. The improvement of the impact strength KC by 71% and the decrease of the hardness HB by 20% was achieved for the soft annealing treatment conducted at a temperature 370°C for 8 hours, compared to the alloy without the heat treatment. A change of the form of eutectic silicon precipitations which underwent refinement, coagulation and partial rounding, had a direct effect on the hardness HB and impact strength KC. The results obtained were used to prepare space plots enabling the temperature and time for soft annealing treatment to be selected with reference to the obtained impact strength KC and hardness HB of the alloy with the heat treatment.
The article presents the analysis of properties of the high-strength AlZnMgCu (abbr AlZn) aluminium alloy and estimates possibilities of its application for responsible structures with reduced weight as an alternative to iron alloy castings. The aim of the conducted studies was to develop and select the best heat treatment regime for a 7xx casting alloy based on high-strength materials for plastic working from the 7xxx series. For analysis, wrought AlZnMgCu alloy (7075) was selected. Its potential of the estimated as-cast mechanical properties indicates a broad spectrum of possible applications for automotive parts and in the armaments industry. The resulting tensile and fatigue properties support the thesis adopted, while the design works further confirm these assumptions.
Magnesium alloy with 5 wt% Al, 0.35 wt% Mn and 5 wt% rare earth elements (RE) was prepared and gravity cast into a sand mould. Microstructure investigations were conducted. Analyses of the Mg-Al-RE alloy microstructure were carried out by light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and the XRD technique. In the as-cast condition, the alloy was composed of α-Mg, Al11RE3 and Al10RE2Mn7 intermetallic phases. Additionally, due to non-equilibrium solidification conditions, an Al2RE intermetallic phase was revealed.
The article presents the effect of rotational and travelling speed and down force on the spindle torque acting on the tool in Friction Stir Processing (FSP) process. The response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to find a dependence combining the spindle torque acting on the tool with the rotational speed, travelling speed and the down force. The linear and quadratic models with interaction between parameters were used. A better fitting was achieved for a quadratic model. The studies have shown that the increase in rotational speed causes a decrease in the torque while the increase in travelling speed and down force causes an increase in the torque. The tests were conducted on casting aluminium alloy AlSi9Mg. Metallography examination has revealed that the application of FSP process results in a decrease in the porosity in the modified material and microstructure refining in the stir zone. The segregation of Si and Fe elements was evident in the parent material, while in the friction stir processed area this distribution was significantly uniform.
Ceramic injection moulding and gas pressure infiltration were employed for the manufacturing of alumina/AlSi10Mg composites. Porous ceramic preforms were prepared by mixing alumina powder with a multi-binder system and injection moulding of the powder polymer slurry. Then, the organic part was removed through a combination of solvent and thermal debinding, and the materials were finally sintered at different temperatures. The ceramic preforms manufactured in this way were infiltrated by an AlSi10Mg alloy. The microstructure and properties of the manufactured materials were examined using scanning electron microscopy, mercury porosimetry and bending strength testing. The results of transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy observations show that the fabricated composite materials are characterised by the percolation type of the microstructure and a lack of unfilled pores with good cohesion at the metal-ceramic interfaces. This is surprising considering that over 30% of the pores are smaller than 1 μm. The results show that the bending strength of the obtained composites decreased with increasing sintering temperature of the porous preforms.
A comprehensive understanding of melt quality is of paramount importance for the control and prediction of actual casting characteristics. Among many phenomenon that occur during the solidification of castings, there are four that control structure and consequently mechanical properties: chemical composition, liquid metal treatment, cooling rate and temperature gradient. The cooling rate and alloy composition are most important among them. This paper investigates the effect of the major alloying elements (silicon and copper) of AlSi-Cu alloys on the size of secondary dendrite arm spacing. It has been shown that both alloying elements have reasonable influence on the refinement of this solidification parameter
This paper describes the possibility of using very short periods of solution annealing in the heat treatment of unmodified hypoeutectic silumin alloy AlSi7Mg0,3 casted by method of casting with crystallization under pressure with forced convection (direct squeeze casting process). Castings prepared at different casting parameters were subjected to special heat treatment called SST (Silicon Spheroidization Treatment), which were originally used only for the modified silumin alloys to spheroidization of eutectic silicon. Temperature holding time in solution annealing of T6 heat treatment is limited in the SST process to only a few minutes. It was studied the effect of casting parameters and periods of solution annealing on ultimate strength, yield strength, and especially ductility that in the unmodified silumin alloy castings is relatively low.
The work presents the investigation results concerning the structure of composite pressure die castings with AlSi11 alloy matrix reinforced with SiC particles. Examination has been held for composites containing 10 and 20 volume percent of SiC particles. The arrangement of the reinforcing particles within the matrix has been qualitatively assessed in specimens cut out of the castings. The index of distribution was determined on the basis of particle count in elementary measuring fields. The tensile strength, the yield point and elongation of the obtained composite were measured. Composite castings were produced at various values of the piston velocity in the second stage of injection, diverse intensification pressure values, and various injection gate width values. The regression equation describing the change of the considered arrangement particles index and mechanical properties were found as a function of the pressure die casting parameters. The infuence of particle arrangement in composite matrix on mechanical properties these material was examined and the functions of correlations between values were obtained. The conclusion gives the analysis and the interpretation of the obtained results.
The work deals with technology Patternless process that combines 3 manufacturing process mold by using rapid prototyping technology, conventional sand formation and 3D milling. It's unconventional technology that has been developed to produce large-sized and heavyduty castings weighing up to several tons. It is used mainly in prototype and small batch production, because eliminating production of models. The work deals with the production of blocks for making molds of gypsum and gypsum drying process technology Thermomold. Into blocks, where were made cavities by milling were casted test castings from AlSi10MgMn alloy by gravity casting. At machining of the mold cavity was varied feed rate of tool of cemented carbide. Evaluated was the surface roughness of test castings, that was to 5 micrometers with feed from 900 to 1300 mm/min. The dimensional accuracy of castings was high at feed rate of 1000 and 1500 mm/min did not exceed 0.025 mm.
The study presents the results of the investigations of the effect of Cu, Ni, Cr, V, Mo and W alloy additions on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the AlSi7Mg0.3 alloy. The examinations were performed within a project the aim of which is to elaborate an experimental and industrial technology of producing elements of machines and devices complex in their construction, made of aluminium alloys by the method of precision investment casting. It was demonstrated that a proper combination of alloy additions causes the crystallization of complex intermetallic phases in the silumin, shortens the SDAS and improves the strength properties: Rm, Rp0.2,HB hardness. Elevating these properties reduces At, which, in consequence, lowers the quality index Q of the alloy of the obtained casts. Experimental casts were made in ceramic moulds preliminarily heated to 160 °C, into which the AlSi7Mg0.3 alloy with the additions was cast, followed by its cooling at ambient temperature. With the purpose of increasing the value of the quality index Q, it is recommended that the process of alloy cooling in the ceramic mould be intensified and/or a thermal treatment of the casts be performed (ageing)(T6).
US A356 and US 413 cast aluminium alloys shrinkage characteristic have been discussed in the present study. Specific volume reduction leads to shrinkage in castings and it can be envisaged as a casting defect. Finite difference based casting process simulation software has been used to study the shrinkage characteristic and it is quantified using mathematical formulae. The three dimensional model of the shrinkage defect has been constructed using CAD application software. Shrinkage characteristic has also been quantified through experimental validation studies and compared well with casting process simulation. Shrinkage characteristic study and control is essential for producing defect free castings. Influence of casting shape on the shrinkage characteristic has been studied in this paper.
To investigate the impact of various Al-Ti-B grain-refiners on solidification and grain-refining performance, a wrought aluminium alloy AA6182 was used. Three different grain-refiners from different manufacturers were used to establish the efficiency, i.e. contact time before casting, on the primary solidification and grain formation size. The primary solidification of α-Al grains at inoculation was observed by using thermal analysis (TA). Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used in order to analyze the quality of various grain-refiners. The size of the primary grains was analyzed using optical microscopy (OM). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to estimate the size and distribution of Al3Ti and TiB2 particles in various grain-refiners and to establish the best efficiency of the investigated grain-refiners. Within 1-4 min of inoculation the smallest fine equiaxed grains were achieved when either one of the investigated grain-refiners was added. It was established, that grain-refiner A contains higher content of impurities which do not melt in the experimental temperature range made by DSC method. The most pure grain-refiner turned out to be grain-refiner B, in which the most optimal number of TiB2 particles and particle size distribution was found.