To figure out the reason causing ladle nozzle clogging during CC (continuous casting) of a non-oriented electrical steel with high silicon (or HNO for short) and get a method to address it, this paper studied the theoretical calculation of flow rates during CC, the inclusions around the slide gate where ladle nozzle clogging happened, and Ca-treatment at the end of RH for decreasing ladle clogging of the electrical steel both theoretically and practically. The results showed that: The bigger diameter of a nozzle or less nozzle clogging can guarantee an enough flow rate for reaching the target casting speed. Ladle nozzle clogging can be predicted by comparing the percentage of slide gate opening. Al2O3 and its composite inclusions were the main reason that caused the ladle nozzle clogging of the electrical steel. Higher [Al] or TO will increase the amount of Pure Ca wires for Ca-treatment. The results of the verification tests fit the thermodynamic calculation, and Ca-treatment using pure Ca wires could prevent ladle nozzles from clogging without affecting the magnetic properties of the electrical steel.
CCS (Carbon Capture and Storage) technology is one of the methods that limit the release of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. However, the high cost of capturing CO2 in this technology is a major obstacle to the implementation of this solution by power plants. The reduction of costs is expected primarily on the side of the capture and separation of CO2 from flue/ industrial gas. The article presents the financial performance of the most popular amine technology (MEA) against mesoporous material about MCM-41 structure obtained from fly ash, impregnated with polyethyleneimine (PEI), for CCS installations. The study was conducted for an investment comprising three key components that provide a full value chain in CCS validation (capture, transport and storage). The mineralogical studies and determination of the physicochemical properties of mesoporous material produced from waste materials such as fly ash allowed us to identify the best class sorbents of MCM-41, which can be used in CO2 capture technologies. Developing an innovative relationship not only allows 100% of CO2 to be removed but also reduces operating costs (OPEX), primarily including energy by 40% and multiple material costs relative to amine mixtures such as MEA.