The Integrated Psychosocial Model of Criminal Social Identity (IPM-CSI) explains the underlying reasons, i.e. risk factors, for the development of criminal social identity (CSI). Empirical research surrounding these risk factors is inconsistent in the measures and procedures used and the risk factors were mostly considered in isolation from one another. The main purpose of the paper was to review existing empirical studies elucidating correlates of CSI incorporated in the IPM-CSI and indicate further direction for research. A search in PubMed, PsychInfo, ERIC, Google Scholar, and the journal Child Development and Adolescent Studies was performed. Eleven studies exploring the correlates of CSI were identified and discussed herein. Studies indicated that there is potential for further expansion of the IPM-CSI to consider the consequences of CSI. Based on the present study results, a set of recommendations are provided for future research.
Noise spectroscopy as a highly sensitive method for non-destructive diagnostics of semiconductor devices was applied to solar cells based on crystalline silicon with a view to evaluating the quality and reliability of this solar cell type. The experimental approach was used in a reverse-biased condition where the internal structure of solar cells, as well as pn-junction itself, was electrically stressed and overloaded by a strong electric field. This gave rise to a strong generation of a current noise accompanied by local thermal instabilities, especially in the defect sites. It turned out that local temperature changes could be correlated with generation of flicker noise in a wide frequency range. Furthermore, an electrical breakdown in a nonstable form also occurred in some specific local regions what created micro-plasma noise with a two-level current fluctuation in the form of a Lorentzian-like noise spectrum. The noise research was carried out on both of these phenomena in combination with the spectrally-filtered electroluminescence mapping in the visible/near-infrared spectrum range and the dark lock-in infrared thermography in the far-infrared range. Then the physical origin of the light emission from particular defects was searched by a scanning electron microscope and additionally there was performed an experimental elimination of one specific defect by the focused ion beam milling.